What does pink mean to you?

Pink packs a punch. The once playful tint of fragile ballerinas, Bubble Yum and Malibu Barbie has flexed some muscle of late, taking on overtones of sociopolitical protest, transgression and unalloyed eroticism.
粉红色也能重拳出击。曾经属于纤巧芭蕾舞女演员、泡泡糖和马里布芭比娃娃的这种嬉戏色调,最近显示出了某种实力,披上了社会与政治抗议、越轨,以及纯色情的寓意。

That message emerges with unexpected force at the Fashion Institute of Technology in a museum exhibition that explores variations of a color that has ping-ponged across the centuries, varying in tone from demure to baldly subversive, from classy to trashy and back.
这个信息以让人意想不到的力量在纽约时装技术学院(Fashion Institute of Technology)的一个博物馆展览中显现出来,展览探索了几个世纪里,这种颜色从腼腆到大胆颠覆,从高贵到无聊,再反回来的多次变化。

Pink is a color in transition — pretty, and pretty unsettling — in a show that opens Sept. 7. Its lingering kitsch factor has clouded its impact for sure.
在9月7日揭幕的展览中,粉红是一种不断转型的颜色——既漂亮,又相当令人不安。其挥之不去的庸俗气息无疑掩盖了其巨大的影响力。

“That’s one reason people think it’s not serious,” said Valerie Steele, the director of the Museum at F.I.T. Ms. Steele, on the other hand, would emphatically urge you to rethink pink. “这是人们认为粉红色不严肃的原因之一,”时装技术学院博物馆馆长瓦莱丽·斯蒂尔(Valerie Steele)说。但斯蒂尔要力劝你从另一个角度来重新思考粉红色。

“Really, it’s society that makes color, that decides what colors are going to mean,” she said, a point reinforced throughout the exhibition and in Ms. Steele’s accompanying book, “Pink: The History of a Punk, Pretty, Powerful Color.”
“的确,是社会制造了颜色,社会决定了各种颜色意味着什么,”她说,这个观点贯穿在整个展览之中,也贯穿在斯蒂尔为之所著的新书《粉红:一个朋克、俏丽、强有力颜色的历史》(Pink: The History of a Punk, Pretty, Powerful Color)之中,并从中得到强化。

A multidimensional hue with widely varying connotations, it is no longer, Ms. Steele insisted, “just girlie dumb pink but androgynous, cool hip protesting pink, an expression of all kinds of more complicated ideas.”
粉红是一种多维的、含义变化多端的色彩,它不再只是“适合少女的愚蠢粉色,而是兼具两性的、既酷且潮又反叛的粉色,是各种更复杂想法的一种表达,”斯蒂尔坚称。

The show makes her point, pink shedding its chaste, frothy associations in stealthy stages in favor of a more defiantly confrontational and sometimes downright kinky mood. Janelle Monáe mined that mood to the hilt with a copy of the ripely suggestive costume she wore in her recent video “Pynk.” That eye-searing look by Duran Lantink, a Dutch designer, is on view, its petal-like trousers opening to reveal a rosy-hued vagina.
展览印证了她的观点,通过几个不声张的阶段,粉红色摆脱了其纯洁、轻快的联想,附上了一种更为反叛的顶撞、有时简直怪癖的情感。歌手加奈儿·梦奈(Janelle Monáe)在她最近的音乐录影“PYNK”中,用身上穿的一件强烈暗示性服装的复制品,把这种情感发挥到了极致。荷兰设计师杜兰·兰廷克(Duran Lantink)设计的灼眼打扮出现在展览中,花瓣状的裤子敞开来,揭示出粉红色调的阴道。

Pink’s transgressive impact, though, has been long in the making. In Western culture the color, in near-magenta and faint, powdery variations, was embraced by the nobility, its popularity enhanced in the late 14th century when new dyes sourced from India and Sumatra made for richer pinks.
不过,粉红的越轨性影响力有一个很长的形成过程。在西方文化里,从接近紫红到淡而偏粉的这个颜色的各种色调曾受到贵族的喜爱,14世纪后期,来自印度和苏门答腊的新染料制出了更饱满的粉红色后,这个颜色就更受欢迎了。

In the mid-1700s, Madame de Pompadour rendered a more confectionary pink the height of fashion: In the portraits of François Boucher, she models a succession of sassily beribboned shell-pink gowns and negligees.
18世纪中期,蓬帕杜夫人使一种更甜蜜的粉红色成为时尚之颠:在弗朗索瓦·布歇为她画的几幅肖像中,她穿了一系列的满是丝带、时髦且自信的贝壳粉色女礼服和女士晨衣。

Pink during that period was intended for both sexes, a point underscored in the exhibition by a mannequin showily attired a coat and breeches, its pale salmon silk damask contrasting smartly with a creamy embroidered waistcoat.
粉红色在那个年代男女皆宜,展览中一具穿着耀眼上衣和半长裤的人体模型强调了这一点,它穿的淡鲑鱼色丝缎与奶油色刺绣马甲背心对比鲜明。

But by the mid-19th century, men had largely ceded pink to their sisters and wives, any of whom might have worn the coy mid-1800s dress showcased at F.I.T., a pink silk taffeta gown, its multiple tiers bordered in an effusion of ruffles. Pink, as Ms. Steele writes, was perceived in those days as a pretty color expressive of delicacy and playful high spirits.
但到了19世纪中期,男人们大多已把粉红色留给了他们的姐妹和妻子,她们当中的任何一位都可能穿过时装技术学院陈列的那件19世纪中期的故作忸怩的、粉红色塔夫绸礼服,其多层的裙摆镶嵌着流露的荷叶边。斯蒂尔写道,粉红在那时被视为一种俏丽的颜色,表达了柔软与俏皮活泼的性格。

But pink also suggested a second skin. A lingerie tint with louche undertones, it was celebrated by Théophile Gautier in his 1850 poem “To a Pink Dress,” the poet rhapsodizing, “How I love you in that dress that undresses you so well.”
但粉红也暗示了贴身衣。蕴含着名声不好却有吸引力内涵的女内衣,是泰奥菲尔·戈蒂耶(Théophile Gautier)在1850年的诗作《致一件粉装》(To a Pink Dress)中颂扬的东西,诗人热情地写道,“我太爱穿着那件装的你,它让你看上去如同不着一丝。”

Times change and with them, pink’s profile. By the late 19th century, pink was as common as ragweed. The introduction of aniline dyes that produced ultrabright, occasionally garish variations diminished the color’s prestige and rendered it vulgar, a tint flaunted in the novels of Emile Zola by shop girls and prostitutes.
时代不同了,粉红色的形象也在变化。到19世纪晚期,粉红已如野草般平常。苯胺染料的引入,生产出了格外明亮、偶尔花里胡哨的粉红色,让这种颜色的声望下降,变得粗俗,带上了埃米尔·左拉(Emile Zola)小说里女店员和妓女卖弄的色彩。

Not for another half-century would pink be restored to a semblance of its former self, a hue both fancy and frivolous enough to be whipped into a ball gown by the couturier Charles James. Propped high on a pedestal at the exhibition centre, James’s 1955 evening dress is a showstopper, a stole of black velvet opening like a flower to show off its faintly naughty rosy lining.
半个世纪之后,粉红才恢复了自己曾经有过的名声,成了足够奢华也足够无聊的颜色,让定制时装设计师查尔斯·詹姆斯(Charles James)把它用在一件舞会礼服上。陈列在高高的展台上的詹姆斯1955年设计的晚礼服,是一件令人印象深刻的展品:黑色丝绒披肩像花朵一样张开,炫耀出其俏皮的淡粉色衬里。

By the 1960s, pink had taken on a dual personality. It was sophisticated enough for Jackie Kennedy, who received the French minister André Malraux at the White House wearing a bonbon pink evening dress. And it was sexy enough for Marilyn Monroe, who gave pink a racy spin encased in a closefitting diamond studded pink evening dress in the 1953 film “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.”
到1960年代,粉红色有了双重性格。对肯尼迪夫人(Jackie Kennedy)来说,粉色足以老成,让她可以穿着糖果粉色的晚礼服在白宫会见法国当时的文化部长安德烈·马尔罗(André Malraux)。对玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)来说,粉色足够性感,让她在1953年的电影《绅士爱美人》里穿上了紧身镶钻的粉色晚礼服,给这个颜色蒙上了不雅的色彩。

Pink went punk in the 1980s, a particularly garish shade known as Ultrapink enlivening the album covers of the Ramones, the Sex Pistols and X-Ray Spex.
粉红在1980年代变得朋克,一种格外花哨的名为“超粉”(Ultrapink)的色调,让“雷蒙斯”(Ramones)、“性手枪”(Sex Pistols)和X-Ray Spex乐队的专辑封面更有生气。

A decade later, the color asserted itself on a global scale as the fashion insignia of self-proclaimed outliers: Madonna embraced pink’s bordello associations, performing in 1990 in a soft pink cone-cupped bustier by Jean Paul Gaultier. Pink became ubiquitous in Japanese girl culture, the blushing hue of mini-gangs of Lolitas roaming the Harajuku district in Tokyo Japanese.
十年后,随着粉色成为以离群者自诩的人的时尚符号,这种颜色在全球范围得到肯定:麦当娜拥抱了粉红与窑子的关联,在1990年穿着让·保罗·高提耶(Jean Paul Gaultier)设计的圆锥形罩杯粉色紧身胸衣演出。粉红色成了日本少女文化中无处不在的颜色,是在东京原宿区游荡的“洛丽塔”小伙伴们脸上挂着的红晕。

The cultish color was taken up by American club crawlers, the emblem of cybergoths and ravers. More recently, it was appropriated by hip-hop culture. Turned out in pink mink and diamonds at New York Fashion Week in 2003, the hip-hop artist Cam’ron lent the sugary hue some clout.

这个邪教般的颜色被逛夜总会的美国人所接受,成为了赛博哥特(cybergoth)和喜欢寻欢作乐者的徽记。再近一些,它也被嘻哈文化采纳。嘻哈艺人Cam’ron在2003年的纽约时装周上,穿着粉红貂皮、戴着钻石现身,给这个甜蜜颜色带来一些影响力。

“People showed me so much love,” he later recalled. “I had to go out to Pantone and create my own color, which is called Killa Pink.”
“人们向我表示了那么多的喜爱,”他后来回忆说。“我不得不去潘通公司(Pantone)创造了我自己的专色,我把它称为‘杀手粉’(Killa Pink)。”

With the years and shifting emphasis, pink turned political, the infamous pink triangle of the Nazi era repurposed by gay rights activists as a symbol of protest. Pink was taken up by a new generation of feminists as an assertion of proud womanhood, a trend that reached a crescendo at the 2017 inauguration when women descended on Washington en masse, flaunting quaintly homespun-looking pussy hats.
随着年代和强调的迁徙,粉红也带上了政治色彩,纳粹时代臭名昭著的粉红三角形被同性恋平权活动人士稍加修改成为抗议的标志。新一代的女权主义者拾起了粉红色,把它作为成年女性自豪的表达,这个趋势在2017年的总统就职典礼上达到顶峰,大批女性戴着看起来是自织的粉红色猫耳帽涌进了华盛顿。

Around that time, pink took on a more knowing shading, as marketers and scores of young consumers made a run on the beiged, grayed and dusty variations known in aggregate as millennial pink, a color that spruced up a range of goods, including Scandinavian furniture and the Fenty label.
大约在那时,粉红有了一种更心照不宣的运用,营销者与大批年轻消费者们决定尝试浅褐的、偏灰的和灰土色的各种粉色,这些统称为“千禧粉”的颜色已用在许多产品上,包括斯堪的纳维亚家具和Fenty品牌。

Fenty’s creator, Rihanna, improbably melded a boudoir mood with the aggressiveness of the playing field in a spring 2017 collection.
Fenty的创始人蕾哈娜(Rihanna)在2017年春季系列中令人难以置信地把闺房气氛与运动场上的志在必得结合起来。

“I figured pink would be over by the time this show was up,” Ms. Steele said. But there are indications — Tom Ford’s pointy pink glitter shoes and the feathery pink ball gown Lady Gaga wore to the premiere of “A Star Is Born,” among them — that pink has yet to run its course.
“我原以为,这个展览结束时,粉红色也会成为过去,”斯蒂尔说。但有从Tom Ford的粉色亮面尖头鞋,到Lady Gaga参加《一个巨星的诞生》(A Star Is Born)首映式时穿的羽毛装饰的粉红色舞会礼服等一系列迹象表明,粉红色还有待发展。

“In terms of its meaning new things, pink has acquired the charisma and complexity of black,” Ms. Steele said. “Once it’s been interpreted as an androgynous and political color that speaks to young men and women of all races, there is no going back.”
“从它意味新生事物的角度而言,粉红色已经具备了黑色的魅力与复杂性,“斯蒂尔说。“它一旦被理解为一种对所有种族的年轻男女都有感召力的、兼具两性的政治颜色,就没有回头路了。”