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Learn English Through Stories – US Fastest Growing Jobs: Caring for the Wealthy

US Fastest Growing Jobs: Caring for the Wealthy

美国增长最快的工作:照顾富人

America’s extremely wealthy population is bigger than ever. And their money is supporting jobs for an increasing number of low-wage workers. 美国极度富裕的人口比以往任何时候都多。他们的钱正在为越来越多的低收入工人提供就业机会。

Also called “wealth workers,” they cut, clean and color the nails of rich people’s hands and feet. They rub and stretch rich people’s bodies. They help rich people exercise and become stronger. But the workers who provide this manicuring, massaging and personal training often earn very low wages.

低收入工人也被称为“财富工作者”,他们修剪、清洁富人的脚并涂指甲油。他们摩擦和伸展富人的身体。他们帮助富人锻炼身体,变得更强壮。但是提供美甲、按摩和个人培训的工人工资通常很低。

Mark Muro is a researcher at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC. He explains that people with extra money are willing to pay other people to do services for them – whether it’s teaching them yoga or walking their dogs. At the same time, Muro says, an increasing number of people “really need this sort of work.”

马克·穆罗是华盛顿布鲁金斯学会的研究员。他解释说,有闲钱的人愿意花钱请别人为他们服务,不管是教他们瑜伽还是遛狗。与此同时,穆罗说,越来越多的人“真的需要这种工作”。

But he notes that the country is losing middle-wage work – what Americans might call “traditionally more solid or dignified.”

但他指出,美国正在失去中等收入的工作——美国人可能会称之为“传统上更稳定或更有尊严”的工作。

Personal care and services jobs are the fastest growing part of the job market for non-college-educated workers, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports. They are expected to grow by 17% in the next 10 years.

美国劳工统计局的报告显示,个人护理和服务类工作是未受过大学教育的劳动者就业市场中增长最快的部分。在未来的10年里,他们有望增长17%。

The Brookings Institution adds that the number of manicurists and pedicurists doubled between 2010 and 2017. Exercise trainers and dog walkers increased at up to three times the rate of employment.

布鲁金斯学会补充称,2010年至2017年,美甲师和足疗师的数量增加了一倍。运动训练师和遛狗者的就业率增加了三倍。

Muro says at least 3 million people in the United States currently do this type of service work for the rich. Wealth workers are more likely to be women and Latino. They often do not have a college degree. And they may work several jobs providing services to people who have more money.

穆罗说,目前美国至少有300万人为富人提供这类服务。财富工作者更可能是女性和拉丁美洲人。他们通常没有大学学位。可能同时做几份工作,为那些有更多钱的人提供服务。

“Our concern is not so much that the jobs exist, but that because of the way we structure work in America, they’re not…good jobs. They really don’t pay that well,” Muro says.

“我们担心的不是工作机会的存在,而是因为我们在美国的工作结构,他们没有……良好的就业机会。他们的工资确实不高。”

These workers are among the easiest to use unfairly. They rarely have sick leave, vacation days or savings to support them when they stop working.

这些工人是最容易被不公平对待的。当他们停止工作时,他们很少有病假、假期或存款来维持生活。

But the jobs do offer something for new immigrants. One-third of workers in the U.S. are in the so-called gig economy, about 10 percent of them full time. The rest are part time, picking up gigs — such as driving for Uber – to add money from another job.

但这些工作确实为新移民提供了一些东西。美国三分之一的劳动者处于所谓的零工经济中,其中约10%是全职人员。其余的则是兼职,做一些零工从另一份工作中赚钱,例如为优步开车。

“I think it’s good for the economy because these are people who need those jobs and demand is the greatest (creator) of labor power for working people,” says Louis Hyman. He is the director of the Institute for Workplace Studies at Cornell University. “The question is not how do we get rid of the gig economy, but how do we marry that with security? And it’s not just a question for gig workers, but for all low-wage workers in America.”

路易斯·海曼说:“我认为这对经济有好处,因为这些人需要这些工作,而需求是劳动人民最伟大的劳动力创造者。”他是康奈尔大学职场研究所的主任。“问题不在于我们如何摆脱零工经济,而在于我们如何将其与安全结合起来?”这不仅是零工工人的问题,也是所有美国低收入工人的问题。”

Hyman says one answer to the problem could be to set up a system of private accounts for each worker. Every time someone provides a service, a dollar goes into their health care account, and a dollar goes into their savings account. That way, says Hyman, workers have an easy way to build financial security.

海曼说,解决这个问题的一个办法是为每个工人建立一个私人帐户系统。每次有人提供服务,一美元就会进入他们的医疗账户,一美元就会进入他们的储蓄账户。海曼说,这样一来,员工们就有了一个建立财务安全的简便方法。

Mark Muro is also concerned about the health of American society. Service jobs often show the difference between the wealthy and the poor. That difference “will produce a lot of dissatisfaction…among the bottom half,” Muro says. He urges that work serving others be taken seriously and respected.

“Let’s ensure these are dignified jobs,” he says.

马克·穆罗也关心美国社会的健康。服务行业的工作往往体现了富人和穷人的区别。这种差异“将会在社会底层产生很多不满……,”穆罗说。他敦促人们认真对待和尊重为他人服务的工作。

“让我们确保这些都是有尊严的工作,”他说。

I’m Susan Shand.

我是苏珊·尚德。

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Words in This Story

massage – n. the action of rubbing or pressing someone’s body in a way that helps muscles to relax or reduces pain in muscles and joints

manicure – n. an act that cleans the nails of the hand

dignified – adj. serious and formal

pedicure – n. an act that cleans the nails of the feet

gig economy – n. a type of working that includes doing part-time or one day jobs, employment without security

rid – v. to remove