Buddhist pearl of Hexi Corridor – Dunhuang Mogao Caves (2) 河西走廊的佛教明珠——敦煌莫高窟(2)

Mogao Caves are located southeast the Chinese Gansu Province Dunhuang esat 25 kilometer place Mt. Mingsha on the foothill cliff, first near dawdle Quan River, face east, north and south length 1680 meters, height 50 meters. Cavern distribution height scattered about, row after row, about most has five. Its beginning consturcts at 16 country times, the Li obliging Repairs Mogao Caves Niche for a statue of Buddha Tablet according to Tang the record. Former Qin establishes a reign title for two years ( 366 years ), the Buddhist priest happy goes via this mountain, sees the golden light sparkle suddenly, if presently ten thousand Buddha, therefore then opened cutting on the dike the first cavern. Hereafter the law good Zen master and so on continues in this to construct the hole to repair the imperial sacrifices, is called the desert high hole, Italy is the desert high place. Because later generation desert and not general, then rename as Mogao Caves. When Northern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty and Northern Zhou Dynasty, the ruler respects and believes in Buddhism, the rock cave construction has the nobility support, the development is quick. The Sui and Tang dynasties time, along with Silk Road prosperity, Mogao Caves is prosperous, when Wu Zetian has cavern thousand. After the Anlushan Rebellion, Dunhuang successively and turns over to the troops fighting in a good cause by Turfan to seize, but the statuary activity too greatly has not been affected. The Northern Song Dynasty, the tangut and the Yuan Dynasty, Mogao Caves gradually hasten the decline, only repaired the previous dynasty hole room primarily, newly built extremely few. After Yuan Dynasty, along with Silk Road abandoning, Mogao Caves also stopped constructing and is neglected gradually in common people’s field fo vision. After Kanghsi 40 years ( in1701 ), here only then again manner attention. The modern times, people usual name it “ Thousand Buddhas Cave ”.

河西走廊的佛教明珠——敦煌莫高窟(2)
莫高窟位於中國甘肅省敦煌市東南25公里處的鳴沙山東麓斷崖上,前臨宕泉河,面向東,南北長1680米,高50米。洞窟分佈高低錯落、鱗次櫛比,上、下最多有5層。它始建於十六國時期,據唐《李克讓重修莫高窟佛龕》的記載,前秦建元二年(366年),僧人樂僔路經此山,忽見金光閃耀,如現萬佛,於是便在岩壁上開鑿了第一個洞窟。此後法良禪師等又繼續在此建洞修禪,成為「漠高窟」,意為「沙漠的高處」。後世因「漠」與「莫」通用,便改稱為「莫高窟」。北魏、西魏和北周時,統治者崇信佛教,石窟建造得到王公貴族們的支持,發展較快。隋唐時期,隨著絲綢之路的繁榮,莫高窟更是興盛,在武則天時有洞窟千餘個。安史之亂後,敦煌先後由吐蕃和歸義軍佔領,但造像活動未受太大影響。北宋、西夏和元代,莫高窟漸趨衰弱,僅以重建前朝窟室為主,新建極少。元朝以後,隨著絲綢之路的廢棄,莫高窟也停止了興建並逐漸湮沒於是人的視野中。直到康熙四十年(1701年)後,這裏才重新為人注意。近代,人們通常稱其為「千佛洞」。

hé xī zǒu láng de fó jiào míng zhū ——dūn huáng mò gāo kū (2)
mò gāo kū wèi yú zhōng guó gān sù shěng dūn huáng shì dōng nán 25gōng lǐ chù de míng shā shān dōng lù duàn yá shàng ,qián lín dàng quán hé ,miàn xiàng dōng ,nán běi cháng 1680mǐ ,gāo 50mǐ 。dòng kū fēn bù gāo dī cuò luò 、lín cì zhì bǐ ,shàng 、xià zuì duō yǒu 5céng 。tā shǐ jiàn yú shí liù guó shí qī ,jù táng 《lǐ kè ràng cháng xiū mò gāo kū fó kān 》de jì zǎi ,qián qín jiàn yuán èr nián (366nián ),sēng rén lè zǔn lù jīng cǐ shān ,hū jiàn jīn guāng shǎn yào ,rú xiàn wàn fó ,yú shì biàn zài yán bì shàng kāi záo le dì yī gè dòng kū 。cǐ hòu fǎ liáng chán shī děng yòu jì xù zài cǐ jiàn dòng xiū chán ,chéng wéi 「mò gāo kū 」,yì wéi 「shā mò de gāo chù 」。hòu shì yīn 「mò 」yǔ 「mò 」tōng yòng ,biàn gǎi chēng wéi 「mò gāo kū 」。běi wèi 、xī wèi hé běi zhōu shí ,tǒng zhì zhě chóng xìn fó jiào ,shí kū jiàn zào dé dào wáng gōng guì zú men de zhī chí ,fā zhǎn jiào kuài 。suí táng shí qī ,suí zhe sī chóu zhī lù de fán róng ,mò gāo kū gèng shì xìng shèng ,zài wǔ zé tiān shí yǒu dòng kū qiān yú gè 。ān shǐ zhī luàn hòu ,dūn huáng xiān hòu yóu tǔ bō hé guī yì jūn zhàn lǐng ,dàn zào xiàng huó dòng wèi shòu tài dà yǐng xiǎng 。běi sòng 、xī xià hé yuán dài ,mò gāo kū jiàn qū shuāi ruò ,jǐn yǐ chóng jiàn qián cháo kū shì wéi zhǔ ,xīn jiàn jí shǎo 。yuán cháo yǐ hòu ,suí zhe sī chóu zhī lù de fèi qì ,mò gāo kū yě tíng zhǐ le xìng jiàn bìng zhú jiàn yān mò yú shì rén de shì yě zhōng 。zhí dào kāng xī sì shí nián (1701nián )hòu ,zhè lǐ cái chóng xīn wéi rén zhù yì 。jìn dài ,rén men tōng cháng chēng qí wéi 「qiān fó dòng 」。


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