为什么你明明不饿,却总想吃东西?科学解释来了!

Have you ever wondered why some days all you want to do is snack?

不知道你有没有想过这个问题:为什么有时候你会不停地想吃东西?

Under normal circumstances, we feel hungry when we have burnt up the food we have eaten as energy and our blood sugar and insulin levels begin to drop. Ghrelin, a hormone connected to appetite, then communicates this to the brain, which is how we feel the need to eat.

在正常情况下,当身体把食物转为能量消耗掉之后,我们的血糖和胰岛素水平也开始降低,这时我们就会感到饥饿。然后,饥饿激素将这个信息传达给大脑。这样我们就会感觉到需要吃东西了。

insulin:胰岛素

Ghrelin:/ˈɡrɛlɪn/食欲刺激素

But all sorts of things can interfere with this process.

但是各种各样的事情都会干扰这个过程。

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1 When you are tired

According to a 2011 study by researchers at Columbia University in the US, those who are sleep-deprived eat almost 300 calories a day more than those who get enough sleep.

根据美国哥伦比亚大学2011年研究人员的一项研究,那些睡眠不足的人每天摄入的热量几乎比那些睡眠充足的人多300卡路里。

This is because levels of the hormone ghrelin, which tells the brain we need to eat, increase when we don’t get enough sleep.

这是因为当我们没有足够的睡眠时,饥饿激素会增加,会告诉大脑需要吃更多的东西。

The Columbia researchers noted that the women who didn’t get enough sleep took in more fat rising by around 30g on sleep-deprived days — four times as much as the average increase for men.

哥伦比亚大学的研究人员指出,睡眠不足的女性在睡眠不足的日子里摄入的脂肪增加了约30克。这是男性平均增加量的四倍。

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2 Troubled times

In a 2013 study, people who were primed to expect “tough times ahead” ate more food than people who listened to neutral messages.

在2013年的一项研究中,那些得知不久会遇到“艰难时期”的人会比获得中性信息的人吃更多的食物。

primed:准备好的

It’s thought that hearing about troubled times causes a survival instinct to kick in, leading to cravings for high-calorie snacks such as chocolate.

一听说“有麻烦了”,人的生存本能就被激发了,对巧克力等高热量零食的渴望也随之增加。

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3 ‘Naughty’ food cravings

Tempted by that extra biscuit? Then just enjoy it — as researchers have found that when you feel guilty about a pleasurable experience, the guilt itself becomes pleasurable, so encouraging you to do it more.

还想再吃一块小饼干?吃就吃吧,开心一点。研究人员发现,当你对某个愉快的体验感到内疚时,内疚本身也会带来快感,进而鼓励你再次去做这件事。

“If we consider something a naughty pleasure, it can psychologically drive the appetite and the guilt may make you want to eat more,” says Cary Cooper, at the University of Lancaster.

兰卡斯特大学的Cary Cooper说,如果我们认为某件事会带来不守规矩的快感,它会在心理上促进食欲,而这种内疚可能会让你想要吃更多。

The appetite center of the brain also lies very close to the area governing mood — the limbic system — which is why changes in the way we feel may affect appetite.

大脑中的食欲控制区域非常接近情绪控制区域——边缘系统——这就是为什么我们的情绪变化会影响食欲。

limbic:边缘的

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4 Mobiles’ blue light

The bright blue light emitted by devices such as smartphones and tablets may give an unwelcome boost to your appetite.

智能手机和平板电脑等设备发出的蓝光可能会增进饮食。

Research this year found that your appetite continued to increase when you are exposed to the light.

今年的研究发现,蓝光下你的食欲会持续增加。

It also altered people’s metabolism, as blood tests showed that the blue-light subjects had higher insulin and glucose levels.

蓝光的照射还会改变人们的新陈代谢。血液测试显示,接受蓝光受试者的胰岛素和葡萄糖水平都更高。

metabolism /mɛ’tæbəlɪzəm/:新陈代谢

glucose /’ɡlukos/:葡萄糖

One possible explanation is that bright blue light at night confuses our body clock, which has a role in controlling when we feel the need to eat.

一种可能的解释是,夜间明亮的蓝光会干扰我们的生物钟。而生物钟可以控制我们什么时候觉得需要进食。

不知道今天的文章有没有解决你的疑问呢?

现在起,起侮辱性绰号也算校园欺凌了!

Many people are given nicknames. Sometimes, a nickname can be a sign of affection, but at other times being given a name isn’t fun at all. In fact, it’s a nightmare.

许多人都有绰号。绰号有时是亲昵的一种体现,但有时被起绰号却一点也不好玩。事实上,简直就是一场噩梦。

In November, the Department of Education and other government departments in Guangdong province released new school guidelines. The guidelines include insulting nicknames as a form of bullying at school.

今年11月,广东省教育厅等多部门联合印发《加强中小学生欺凌综合治理方案的实施办法(试行)》(以下简称《实施办法》)。《实施办法》将“起侮辱性绰号”纳入校园欺凌的范畴。

The guidelines will take effect on Dec 1. They will be applied in all primary, secondary and vocational schools in Guangdong. There will be punishments for those who break the rules, including expulsion.

该《实施办法》自12月1日起生效,适用于广东省所有中小学校以及职业学校。违反规定者将面临包括开除在内的处分。

Many people give their full support to the guidelines.

这份《实施办法》获得了广泛支持。

“Many of my classmates have been given insulting nicknames. It really hurt them, causing mental problems. This is why I think dealing with insulting nicknames is really important,” Shen Sijia, from the Second High School Affiliated to Beijing Normal University, told TEENS.

“我有不少同学都有侮辱性绰号。这真的让他们很难受,还导致了一些心理问题。所以我认为解决侮辱性绰号这一问题很有必要,”来自北京师范大学第二附属中学的申思嘉在接受本报采访时表示。

Chen Junliang, mother of a fifth-grader, told China Daily that the rules could help to make a positive study environment for students.

一名五年级学生的家长陈君良(音译)在接受《中国日报》采访时表示,新规有助于为学生们创造一个积极的学习环境。

School bullying is not rare in China. According to the Supreme People’s Court’s China Justice Big Data Service Platform, Chinese courts heard almost 800 cases of school violence in 2017. Almost half of them involved students aged between 16 and 18.

校园欺凌在国内并不少见。据最高人民法院下属的中国司法大数据服务网显示,2017年,全国各级人民法院审结校园暴力案件约800件,其中近一半涉及16-18岁的学生。

To deal with school bullying, the State Council’s Education Supervision Committee started an anti-bullying campaign in April. Schools have been asked to begin at least one educational campaign against bullying every semester. The aim is to improve anti-bullying knowledge and skills among students.

针对校园欺凌现象,国务院教育督导委员会于今年4月展开了欺凌防治行动。通知要求,学校每学期至少开展一次学生欺凌专题教育,普及防治学生欺凌知识和反欺凌技能。

Sadly there is bullying at school all over the world. About half of students between the ages of 13 and 15 worldwide, or 150 million of them, have been bullied in and around school.

遗憾的是,世界各地都存在着校园欺凌现象。在全球13-15岁的学生中,约有一半(1.5亿人)都曾在校内或者学校周边遭受欺凌。

“Every day, students face [many] dangers, including fighting, pressure to join gangs, bullying,” said Henrietta Fore, executive director of United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, according to the organization’s official website.

“每天学生们都面临着(诸多)危险,如斗殴、被小团体施压、遭受欺凌等,”联合国国际儿童紧急救援基金会执行主任亨丽埃塔·福尔在该组织官网上如此表示。

“Violence is an unforgettable lesson that no child needs to learn,” Fore said.

“没有孩子需要接触暴力这一难忘的一课,”福尔说道。

To deal with the problem, many countries have taken action. In the United States, all the 50 states have their own anti-bullying laws, according to CBS News.

针对这一问题,许多国家都采取了行动。据哥伦比亚广播公司新闻报道,美国50个州都有各自的一套反欺凌法律。

Many US anti-bullying laws say that bullying is not only direct physical contact like hitting, but also verbal attacks such as name-calling.

不少美国反欺凌法律都规定,欺凌不光是殴打等直接的身体接触,还包括了辱骂等言语攻击。

In Japan, the government passed an anti-bullying law in 2013. It asks each school to come up with a basic policy to stop bullying. The law also asks schools to set up an organization to deal with the problem.

2013年,日本政府通过了一项反欺凌法案。该法案要求各学校制定基本政策阻止欺凌,并要求学校设立相应机构应对这一问题。