很幸运能有你

After the car accident… I could not go back to the work.

车祸之后……我无法继续工作。
Could not go back to our lab.
无法回到我们的实验室。
So you moved here.
所以你搬到这里。
Where no one knew me.
在这没人认识我。
Where no one could remind me of what I had lost,
在这,没人能令我想起我失去的人,
and… I… I found it difficult, starting over, rebuilding, and what took me 14 years.
但是……我……这一切都太难了,从头来过,重建一切,我痛苦了14年。
Tess could have done in 4, believe me, she… she… at the time of Nora Allen’s murder,
而泰丝只需四年就能重新开始,相信我,她……她……在诺拉·艾伦被谋杀的时候,
闪电侠
the particle accelerator that I would eventually create was—but a notion, much less a reality,

我最终创造的粒子加速器当时还只是个想法,还不太现实,
and so whomever or whatever is responsible for her death,
所以不管是什么人或物害死她的,
it did not originate from me or from my work.
都不是因为我,或者我的工作。
I’m sorry I doubted you, but I hope I can still count on your help.
我为怀疑过你而道歉,但我希望你以后还能帮忙。
You don’t give up, do you?
你不会放弃的,是吗?
Nope. Not till I get my man.
不会,直到抓到元凶为止。
I owe that to Barry and to Henry.
这是我欠巴里和亨利的。
Barry is lucky to have you on his side, Joe.
巴里很幸运有你在身边,乔。

吸引力的科学

We like to think of romantic feelings as spontaneous and indescribable things that come from the heart.

我们倾向于将浪漫当成是一种来自于内心内心,自发而又而难以言述的行为。
But it’s actually your brain running a complex series of calculations within a matter of seconds that’s responsible for determining attraction.
但是实际上是你的大脑,在瞬间做出的一系列复杂运算决定了一个人对你的吸引力。
Doesn’t sound quite as poetic, does it?
听起来一点也没有诗意对吧?
But just because the calculations are happening in your brain doesn’t mean those warm, fuzzy feelings are all in your head.
然而,虽然所有的运算都是由大脑完成的,那些温暖而朦胧的感觉并不仅仅存在于脑海中。
In fact, all five of your senses play a role, each able to vote for, or veto, a budding attraction.
实际上,你的五种感觉都参与其中,各自趋同或者否决了正在萌芽中的吸引力。
The eyes are the first components in attraction.
眼睛是吸引力的第一个裁判。
吸引力的科学

Many visual beauty standards vary between cultures and eras, and signs of youth, fertility and good health,

不同的文化和时代,对视觉美的标准都有所不同而作为年轻、活力、健康的标志,
such as long lustrous hair, or smooth, scar-free skin, are almost always in demand because they’re associated with reproductive fitness.
比如富有光泽的长发或者光滑无疤的皮肤永远很受欢迎,因为它们也代表着良好的繁殖能力。
And when the eyes spot something they like, our instinct is to move closer so the other senses can investigate.
当眼睛注意到他们喜爱的事物,我们的本能让我们越靠越近这时其他的感觉也参与其中。
The nose’s contribution to romance is more than noticing perfume or cologne.
鼻子对于浪漫的贡献绝不仅仅是分辨香水或古龙水。
It’s able to pick up on natural chemical signals known as pheromones.
它能够辨别一种被称作“费洛蒙“的天然的化学信号。
These not only convey important physical or genetic information about their source but are able to activate a physiological or behavioral response in the recipient.
它们不仅传递着气味发出者重要的生理或基因信息,而且能够激发接收者的心理或行为上的反应。
In one study, a group of women at different points in their ovulation cycles wore the same T-shirts for three nights.
在一个研究中,一组处于不同月经周期的女性连续三个晚上穿着同样的T恤。
After male volunteers were randomly assigned to smell either one of the worn shirts, or a new unworn one,
之后,男性志愿者被随机抽取去闻一件穿过的T恤,或者一件新的没穿过的。
saliva samples showed an increase in testosterone in those who had smelled a shirt worn by an ovulating woman.
唾液样本显示那些闻过排卵期女性穿过的T恤的男性睾丸素分泌有明显的增加。

蜜蜂不喜健康植株爱病毒 意在帮宿主繁衍

Science and technology: Evolution: Bee kind to viruses

科学技术:进化:蜜蜂爱病毒
A strange tale of collaboration between plants, pathogens and insects.
植物、病毒和昆虫的奇特合作。
Cucumber mosaic virus is not restricted to its eponymous host.
黄瓜花叶病毒能感染不是只有黄瓜。
They could also ravage tomatoes—stunting them and causing them to produce contorted tendril-like leaves.
这种病毒也荼毒番茄——病株会长出卷曲的病叶。
蜜蜂爱病毒.png

Given this devastation, it is surprising susceptible plants continue to exist; natural selection should have produced resistance years ago.

考虑到病毒的危害,至今还存在易感染植物着实让人惊奇——自然选择应该早就帮助它们形成了病毒抵抗力。
A paper in this week’s PLoS Pathogens, however, explains the apparent contradiction.
本周,PLoS Pathogens发表的一篇论文解释了这一明显矛盾。
The team that wrote it, led by John Carr of Cambridge University, found that the virus actually helps its host to reproduce.
发表这篇文章的团队由剑桥大学的约翰·卡尔带领,他们发现病毒实际上在帮助宿主繁衍。
It does so using an unsuspecting accomplice: the bumble-bee.
而达成这种目标借助的不是别的,正是大黄蜂。
Like many discoveries, this one was accidental.
像很多发现一样,这个发现也纯属偶然。
Dr Carr had ordered some equipment to analyse the volatile chemicals emitted by infected tomato plants.
卡尔博士订购了一些设备用来分析番茄病株释放的易挥发化学物质。
While he was waiting for it to arrive, a colleague offered to lend him some bees, as these pollinators are known for their sense of smell.
在等候交货的这段时间,一位同事提出借给他一些蜜蜂,因为这些传粉使者具有灵敏的嗅觉。
His team placed both healthy and infected plants in a greenhouse, covered them so that the bees could smell but not see them, and released the insects.
于是团队人员把正常植株和感染植株一同放到温室,遮盖它们确保蜜蜂只能嗅到而不能看到它们,然后释放蜜蜂。
The bees could indeed tell the difference—but to Dr Carr’s surprise they did not favour the healthy plants.
蜜蜂确实可以嗅出植株的不同,但令卡尔博士感到惊讶的是,它们并不喜欢健康植株。
Rather, they strongly preferred the infected ones.
相反,它们对感染植株青睐有加。
For some viral strains, they were four times more likely to visit an infected plant than a healthy one.
有一些受感染的病株甚至能吸引比健康植株多三倍的蜜蜂。
Subsequent experiments, carried out after the analytical apparatus had arrived, showed that this difference in behaviour was, indeed, a response to differences in the chemicals that infected and uninfected plants give off.
在分析设备到货以后进行的后续实验揭示了蜜蜂区别对待植株的原因——感染植株和健康植株释放的化学物质不同。
The question was how the bees’ preference played into the plants’ evolution.
那么蜜蜂的偏爱在植物进化中起到了什么作用呢?
Tomatoes are able to fertilise themselves, without need of a pollinator, yet even this self-pollination can be assisted by a bee visiting a flower.
番茄可以自我繁衍,不需要传粉者,但是如果有蜜蜂来传播花粉,这种自花授粉的植物也会得到帮助。
Vibrations caused by the insect’s buzzing help release pollen from the flower’s anthers so that it can fall onto the stigma.
昆虫翅膀的震动帮助播撒取自花药的花粉,并落到柱头上。
Could this process, Dr Carr wondered, make up for the evolutionary disadvantage the virus otherwise inflicts?
卡尔博士疑惑这个过程能否弥补病毒在其他方面带来的进化劣势。
To investigate, he and his colleagues grew both healthy and infected tomatoes in a greenhouse with no bees, and a similar mixture in a greenhouse into which bees were released one at a time, and their movements tracked.
为了进一步调查,卡尔博士和同事在一个温室里种植了健康番茄和感染番茄,但是没有蜜蜂,又在另一个温室里进行同样的种植,但是向这个温室每次释放一只蜜蜂,并追踪它的轨迹。
They then analysed the seeds of the fruits of each plant as a proxy for evolutionary fitness.
之后他们选取每株番茄的种子作为进化适应性的代表进行分析。
All of the seeds they looked at seemed viable.
他们观察的种子似乎都有望存活。
What differed was the number of seeds in each fruit.
不同点在于每个番茄果实内所含的种子数量。
In the bee-free greenhouse, infected plants had only about 50 seeds per fruit, whereas healthy ones averaged 70.
在没有蜜蜂的温室里,感染番茄平均每个果实仅含50枚种子,健康番茄70枚。
When bees were present, though, something strange happened.
在蜜蜂活动的温室里,神奇的事情上演了。
The seed count of fruits from healthy flowers visited by bees increased to 85—but that of the flowers of infected plants jumped much higher, to 115.
蜜蜂拜访过的健康番茄果实内的种子增长至85枚,而感染番茄跃升至115枚。
Further investigation showed a possible reason.
更深入的调查提供了可能的解释。
Not only did bees visit the infected plants more, but they also spent longer buzzing around infected flowers.
感染番茄不仅能吸引更多蜜蜂,还能让它们环绕感染植物飞舞更久。
The extra pollen thus displaced probably explains how the sickly plants outproduced their healthy confreres.
充裕的花粉很可能是这些生病植株比它们健康的同伴更高产的原因。
Using these experimental data, the researchers modelled how the system might have evolved.
研究人员运用实验数据模拟了这一系统可能的发展过程。
They found that the pollinator’s preference for the smell of infected plants was big enough to stop the emergence of viral-resistance in tomatoes.
他们发现,传粉者对感染植株味道的青睐足以阻止番茄形成病毒抵抗力。
That explains what is in it for the tomatoes and also for the virus.
这同样解释了番茄和病毒的利害关系。
What the bees get out of it, though, remains mysterious.
但是蜜蜂能从中分一杯什么羹,还是个谜。