Chinese language study HK – Learn Chinese idioms -Looking at Plums to Quench the Thirst

Mandarin Lesson

In the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280), Cao Cao was once on a campaign during which his men failed to find any water. Cao Cao told them: “There are plum trees ahead. The sweet and sour plums will relieve your thirst.” Hearing this, the soldiers thought of the plums and their mouths watered. This cured their thirst.

 This idiom means to comfort oneself with fantasy.

 

望梅止渴
三國時代,有一次曹操帶領軍隊去打仗。在行軍的路上,找不到水源,士兵們都感到口渴難忍。曹操想出一個計策,指著前面一片樹林說:“那裡就是一大片梅林,樹上的梅子又甜又酸,可以解渴。”士兵們聽了,想起梅子的酸味,一個個都留出了口水,再也不覺的口渴了。
“望梅止渴”這個成語比喻用空想來安慰自己。

 

國語班 -疊字形容詞的變調可分哪幾類?

Mandarin Lesson

疊字形容詞的變調可分為下列各類∶
1]AA 式的變調AA 式疊字形容詞,第二個音節原字
調是陽平、上聲、去聲,即非陰平聲(第一聲)時,調值變為高平調55,跟陰平的調值一樣。
例∶紅紅、大大、滿滿。在口語中常帶上「兒尾」,大多表示期望、祈令、要求,語氣溫和
婉轉。例∶長長兒(的)、好好兒(的)、慢慢兒(的)、快快兒(的)、穩穩兒(的)。
2)ABB 式及AABB 式的變調ABB 式及AABB 式疊字形容詞,當後面兩個疊字音節的聲調是陽平、上聲、去聲,即非陰平聲時,調值變為高平調55,跟陰平的調值一樣。例如∶ABB 式∶綠油
油(youyou),紅彤彤(tongtong),笑吟吟(yinyin);AABB 式∶慢慢騰騰(tengteng),馬馬虎虎
(huhu),穩穩噹噹(dangdang)。

普通話教師-普通話基礎學習

Mandarin Lesson

s【s】:舌尖前-齒背-清-擦音
舌尖接近上門齒背,形成一個窄縫,軟齶上升,氣流從窄縫中洩出,摩擦成聲,聲帶不
振動。
X :舌面前-硬腭-清-擦音
舌面前部靠近硬腭前部,形成一個窄縫,軟齶上升,氣流從舌面與硬腭間的窄縫裡擠出,
摩擦成聲,聲帶不振動。
c【ts’】舌尖前-齒背-清-送氣-塞擦音
舌尖抵住上門齒背,軟齶上升,氣流因通路被完全封閉而積蓄起來。然後舌尖微離上齒
背,形成一個縫隙,氣流從縫隙中洩出,摩擦成聲,聲帶不振動。
由於發舌尖前音時,舌尖要前伸,上翹的姿勢不明顯,舌面平直,因此舌尖前音z、c、
s 通常又叫做平舌音。在許多方言中,捲舌音和平舌音不分,甚至這兩類音和舌面前音j、q、
x 也不分。學習普通話,要特別注意這三類音的區分。

 

Mandarin lesson in hong kong – Ancient Chinese idioms -Basking in Reflected Glory

Mandarin Lesson

A tiger caught a fox in a forest, and was just about to eat it, when the fox said, ‘You mustn’t eat me. I was sent by Heaven to rule the animals. By eating me, you will violate the command of Heaven. If you don’t believe me, just follow me to see whether the animals are of me.’ The tiger agreed, and followed the fox as it walked around the forest. The animals all ran away on seeing them. The tiger thought they were of the fox, so he let it go. He didn’t realise that it was him that the beasts were really of.

This idiom means relying on another’s power to bully or frighten others.  

狐假虎威
老虎在山林裡捉到了一隻狐狸,要吃掉它。狐狸連忙說:“你不能吃我,我是天帝派來統治百獸的。你要吃了我,就違抗了天帝的命令。你不信,就跟我到山林裡去一趟,看百獸見了我是不是都很害怕。”老虎相信了狐狸的話,就跟在狐狸的後面走進山林。百獸見了果然都紛紛逃命。老虎以為百獸真的害怕狐狸而不知道是害怕自己,於是就把狐狸給放了。
“狐假虎威”這個成語用來比喻倚仗別人的勢力去欺壓人或嚇唬人。

怎樣學習普通話才最高效?

Mandarin Lesson

1.正確模仿①專業普通話教師的互動式示範模仿、教學輔導(哪怕幾次、一次的針對
性輔導。無數事實證明,母語方言巨大的慣性使成年人自我矯正方音幾乎不可能,必須有專
業老師的互動輔導才能較快奏效) ②正規普通話教材(必須配錄音才更有效)。 :本人編錄
2.知識指導有針對性地學習實用的普通話語音、詞彙、語法知識,以正確的理論指導
訓練,以免學習低效和走彎路。理論和實踐緊密結合,互相支持,是學習普通話必須遵循的
原則。
3.反复實踐
①用標準音熟讀、背會一些名篇佳作; ②積極參加朗讀朗誦、演講辯論、
講故事、說快板、說相聲、歌唱、話劇、播音、主持等語言藝術訓練及活動,以此學用結
合,激發興趣,精益求精。 ③盡量日常應用普通話.語言學而不用是斷然學不好的,最好時
時用,處處用,時時留心,處處留意。凡是技能,無一不需要“拳不離手,曲不離口”的勤奮
訓練。
注意:學習朗誦朗讀和播音主持的必要前提是普通話發音標準。千萬不要在尚未學好發
音時就急於反复練習篇章內容,否則會把發音錯誤鞏固為難以矯正的頑疾,需要花數倍的時間進行矯治。

learn chinese in hong kong -Self-Contradiction

Mandarin Lesson

Once upon a time, there was a businessman in Chu Kingdom. One day, he sold his spear and shield in the market. He told people, “My spear is the sharpest spear in the world. It can pierce everything. And my shield is the solidest in the world. Nothing can destroy it.” Then somebody asked him, “If we use your spear to pierce your shield, what will happen?” The businessman didn’t know how to reply.

Be self-contradictory both in words and behaviour.

自相矛盾
很久很久以前,楚國有一個商人,一天他到市場上去賣自己製造的矛和盾。他大聲的叫賣,有很多人圍過來看,他舉起盾說:“我的盾是世界上最堅固的,無論怎樣鋒利的東西也不能刺穿它!” 接著,他又拿起一支矛,得意地說:“我的矛是世界上最鋒利的,無論怎樣堅固的東西也能刺穿!”這時一位圍觀的人上前拿起他的一支矛和一面盾問道:“如果用這支矛去刺這面盾,結果會怎樣呢?” 這個人一下子回答不出來,最後只好灰溜溜地扛著矛和盾走了。
 
“自相矛盾”這個成語比喻語言、行動前後不一致或互相抵觸。

 

Chinese language study HK – Read the story in China to learn Chinese -Stealing the Light for Study by Making a Small Hole Secretly from Neighbor’s Wall

Mandarin Lesson

In the Western Han Dynasty there was a Chinese man named Kuang Heng. Kuang Heng was born in a poor family, but he was diligent in his study. As his family was too poor to afford to buy a candle for him, he often felt sad when evening came.  Every evening he could see the candle-light from his neighbor, but the light could not reach his home. Later, an idea came to him – to secretly make a small hole in the wall and let a glimmer of light come in through the hole. This stealing light allowed him to study until late at night. When he was grown up he became a very famous scholar in the Western Han Dynasty.

 

The original meaning of this idiom is to make a hole in the wall and read a book by stealing the light from a neighbor. Later it came to refer to studying under very hard conditions.

鑿壁借光
 “中國西漢的時候,有個人叫做匡衡(Kuāng Héng)。匡衡年輕的時候十分好學,但是他家裡很窮,買不起蠟燭。匡衡晚上想讀書的時候,常常因為沒有燈光而發愁。鄰居家有蠟燭,晚上會有亮光,但是亮光卻照不到他的家裡。後來,他想了一個辦法,就在牆壁上悄悄地鑿了一個小孔,讓隔壁人家的燭光透過來,每天藉著小孔中微弱的光線讀書。就這樣,他經常學到深夜,後來成了西漢著名的學者。
鑿壁借光”這個成語是說偷借鄰居家的燈光讀書。後來指在艱苦的條件下堅持刻苦學習。

 

普通話導師-兒化韻的讀音規律

Mandarin Lesson

方言區人不容易發好兒化韻,主要障礙在於有些韻母(尾)不便於捲舌,需要注意它們
的讀音變化規律:
l、韻母中最後一個元音是a、o、e、ê、u,在發這個元音的同時加捲舌動作,如:
那兒 nàr 鮮花兒 xiānhuār
山坡兒 shānpōr 幹活兒 gànhóur
這兒 zhèr 台階兒 táijiēr
水珠兒 shuǐzhūr 小狗兒 xiáogǒur
2、韻母有韻尾i 或n 的,丟掉韻尾,在發韻腹的同時加捲舌動作,如:
小孩兒 háir→hár 香味兒 wèir→wèr
拐彎兒 wānr→wār 唱本兒 běnr→běr
3、韻母i、ü 要在i、ü 後面加上一個[Er] (發音比e 的舌位略前,略低,舌面要
放鬆,《漢語拼音方案》就寫e ),同時加捲舌動作,如:小雞兒jīr→jiēr 金魚兒yúr→yuér
4、韻母是-i [ü〕、-i〔〕的,丟掉這個韻母,改成[E],然後捲舌,如:
樹枝兒 zhīr→zēr 沒事兒 shìr→shèr
魚刺兒 cìr→cèr 細絲兒 sīr→sēr
5、後鼻音韻母,丟掉韻尾ng ,發韻腹元音時,口、鼻同時出氣,形成鼻化元音(國
際音標用”~”作為元音鼻化記號) 同時捲舌,,如:蛋黃兒huángr→huDr

 

普通話補習-兒化音的讀法和變化規律

Mandarin Lesson

(一)兒化的性質和作用
er 韻母叫兒韻,只有”兒、而”ér、”爾、耳、邇、餌”ěr. “二、貳”èr 等很少幾個常用字。
有具體的意義。有另外的作用,er它可以和韻母結合起來,使這個韻母發音時帶有捲舌色彩,
這就是”兒化韻”。一般不表示什麼具體的意義。
“兒化韻”是韻母的一種音變現象。韻母兒化以後讀音要發生變化,在發這個音節的同時
韻母就產生捲舌動作,雖然讀音只是一個音節,但是在書寫上一般要用兩個漢字。如: “花
兒hu 乺”中的”花”和”兒”結合成一個”兒化音節”。《漢語拼音方案》規定,用拼音字母拼寫兒
化韻,一律在原韻母后面加一個r 來表示。
普通話裡的”兒化”音變現象具有以下作用:
1、語法上,區分詞性。例如:
畫(動詞)–畫兒(名詞) 尖(形容詞)–尖兒(名詞)
2、詞彙上,區別詞義。例如:
眼(眼睛)–眼兒(”小洞”之義) 頭(腦袋)–頭兒(”負責人”之義)
3、修辭上,表示微小的形狀或者帶有喜愛、親切等感情色彩。如:
鮮花兒、女孩兒、好玩兒、山歌兒

 

learn mandarin hong kong – Classical Chinese idioms -The Foolish Old Man Who Moved Mountains

Mandarin Lesson

Long long ago, there lived an old man named Yugong. There were two huge mountains in front of his house and blocked his way to the outside world. One day Yugong said to his family, “Let’s move the two mountains away and clear away our road!” This idea was welcomed by his family members. “But where do we put the earth on the mountain?” asked his wife. “We can dump them in the sea.” said Yugong. So they set out to work the next day. One of the neighbors saw it and asked, “You are already an old man. How can you finish this huge project?” Yugong answered with a smile, “Although I am old, I have sons and grandsons. And they will have their sons and grandsons as time goes. If I am too old to finish it, it will be continued on by my offspring. So long as we keep at it, we’ll manage it someday.”  Yugong’s words were later heard by God. God thought, “Yugong is a man of strong wills. Let me help him!” So he sent his men to move away the two mountains.

 

Refer to do sth. with constancy and perseverance.

 

愚公移山
很久以前,有一位名叫愚公的老人,他家門口有兩座高山,家人每天進出都要繞很遠的路!有一天愚公對家人說:“我們把擋在門口的兩座大山移開吧,讓門口的路可以直通到外面的大路上,好不好?”兒子和孫子都很贊同,可是愚公的妻子卻說:“那大山的泥土搬到哪兒呢?”愚公回答:“可以搬到海裡去呀!” 第二天愚公就開始了移山的工作。這時候,別人對愚公說:“你已經這麼老了,還要去移山?就算讓你搬到死也不可能把大山移走呀!” 愚公笑著回答:“我雖然很老,但我還有兒子,兒子還會生孫子,孫子又會生兒子,我們的子孫可以一直搬下去,總有一天會把這兩座山搬走的。”後來,這件事傳到了天神的耳朵裡,天神想:“愚公真是有恆心的人!我來幫幫他吧!”天神就派神仙去把那兩座山背到別的地方去,不再擋在愚公家門口了。
 “愚公移山”這個成語比喻做事情有毅力,有恆心,不怕困難。