Chinese Learning Centre – preface

Chinese Learning Centre – preface

科學是我們文化中佔主導地位的主題。因為它觸及幾乎每一個我們生活的方方面面,受過教育的人必須至少與它的結構和運作的一些熟人。他們也應該有一個了解科學家生活的亞文化和各種人,他們是。科學以及特殊科學概念的一般特徵的理解是比較容易實現,如果一個人知道一些有關的東西,激發和挫傷科學家。
這本書是為聰明的學生打下人與科學的認識是膚淺的;已霉味的倉庫作為一個乾巴巴的事實與科學的人的人認為科學的主要目的生產的小玩意;的人認為作為某種魔法師的科學家。這本書可以用於補充任何科學的過程中,伴隨任何試圖給現代世界的認識的過程,或任何課程 – 獨立 – 只是提供了一個更好地了解科學。我們希望這本書能引導讀者對科學態度和科學的科學家是誰,更現實的看法,以及他們做什麼更廣闊的視野。這將使他們的科學和我們的文化和科學在我們的文化中發揮的作用表示讚賞之間的關係的認識和理解。此外,讀者可學會欣賞科學的意見和一些是在我們的文化中普遍存在的價值觀和哲學之間的關係。
我們曾試圖在這本書中提出科學界和人民的填充它的人的準確和最新的圖片。在最近幾年,人口,包括越來越多的婦女。這個婦女在科學亞文化的日益重要的作用,是不是一個獨特的事件,但,而,部分明顯的趨勢,在社會各階層為更多的婦女進入傳統上由男性佔主導地位的領域做出顯著貢獻。然而,在討論這些變化和貢獻,我們都面臨著同一種語言,是隱含性別歧視,男性的名詞或代詞,指未指定的個人使用。為了抵​​消這種內置的偏見,我們已經通過使用複數名詞和代詞盡可能,並在絕對必要時,交替,他和她的政策。這項政策遠未形成是理想的,但它至少是承認不足,我們在治療人類的一半,同樣的語言。
我們也試圖使本書的娛樂性和知識性。我們的做法通常是非正式的。許多其他科學家一樣,我們覺得,我們不應該把自己太當回事。作為讀者可以看到,我們看到了一個愉快的消遣,而不是作為一個嚴峻的,沉悶的方式謀生的科學。

kē xué shì wǒ men wén huà zhōng zhàn zhǔ dǎo dì wèi de zhǔ tí 。yīn wéi tā chù jí jī hū měi yī gè wǒ men shēng huó de fāng fāng miàn miàn ,shòu guò jiào yù de rén bì xū zhì shǎo yǔ tā de jié gòu hé yùn zuò de yī xiē shú rén 。tā men yě yìng gāi yǒu yī gè liǎo jiě kē xué jiā shēng huó de yà wén huà hé gè zhǒng rén ,tā men shì 。kē xué yǐ jí tè shū kē xué gài niàn de yì bān tè zhǐ de lǐ jiě shì bǐ jiào róng yì shí xiàn ,rú guǒ yī gè rén zhī dào yī xiē yǒu guān de dōng xī ,jī fā hé cuò shāng kē xué jiā 。
zhè běn shū shì wéi cōng míng de xué shēng dǎ xià rén yǔ kē xué de rèn shí shì fū qiǎn de ; yǐ méi wèi de cāng kù zuò wéi yī gè qián bā bā de shì shí yǔ kē xué de rén de rén rèn wéi kē xué de zhǔ yào mù dì shēng chǎn de xiǎo wán yì ; de rén rèn wéi zuò wéi mǒu zhǒng mó fǎ shī de kē xué jiā 。zhè běn shū kě yǐ yòng yū bǔ chōng rèn hé kē xué de guò chéng zhōng ,bàn suí rèn hé shì tú gěi xiàn dài shì jiè de rèn shí de guò chéng ,huò rèn hé kè chéng – dú lì – zhǐ shì tí gōng le yī gè gèng hǎo dì liǎo jiě kē xué 。wǒ men xī wàng zhè běn shū néng yǐn dǎo dú zhě duì kē xué tài dù hé kē xué de kē xué jiā shì shuí ,gēng xiàn shí de kàn fǎ ,yǐ jí tā men zuò shí me gēng guǎng kuò de shì yě 。zhè jiāng shǐ tā men de kē xué hé wǒ men de wén huà hé kē xué zài wǒ men de wén huà zhōng fā huī de zuò yòng biǎo shì zàn shǎng zhī jiān de guān xì de rèn shí hé lǐ jiě 。cǐ wài ,dú zhě kě xué huì xīn shǎng kē xué de yì jiàn hé yī xiē shì zài wǒ men de wén huà zhōng pǔ biàn cún zài de jià zhí guān hé zhé xué zhī jiān de guān xì 。
wǒ men zēng shì tú zài zhè běn shū zhōng tí chū kē xué jiè hé rén mín de tián chōng tā de rén de zhǔn què hé zuì xīn de tú piàn 。zài zuì jìn jǐ nián ,rén kǒu ,bāo kuò yuè lái yuè duō de fù nǚ 。zhè gè fù nǚ zài kē xué yà wén huà de rì yì zhòng yào de zuò yòng ,shì bú shì yī gè dú tè de shì jiàn ,dàn ,ér ,bù fèn míng xiǎn de qū shì ,zài shè huì gè jiē céng wéi gèng duō de fù nǚ jìn rù chuán tǒng shàng yóu nán xìng zhàn zhǔ dǎo dì wèi de lǐng yù zuò chū xiǎn zhù gòng xiàn 。rán ér ,zài tǎo lùn zhè xiē biàn huà hé gòng xiàn ,wǒ men dōu miàn lín zhù tóng yī zhǒng yǔ yán ,shì yǐn hán xìng bié qí shì ,nán xìng de míng cí huò dài cí ,zhǐ wèi zhǐ dìng de gè rén shǐ yòng 。wèi le dǐ ​​ xiāo zhè zhǒng nèi zhì de piān jiàn ,wǒ men yǐ jīng tōng guò shǐ yòng fù shù míng cí hé dài cí jìn kě néng ,bìng zài jué duì bì yào shí ,jiāo tì ,tā hé tā de zhèng cè 。zhè xiàng zhèng cè yuǎn wèi xíng chéng shì lǐ xiǎng de ,dàn tā zhì shǎo shì chéng rèn bù zú ,wǒ men zài zhì liáo rén lèi de yī bàn ,tóng yàng de yǔ yán 。
wǒ men yě shì tú shǐ běn shū de yú lè xìng hé zhī shí xìng 。wǒ men de zuò fǎ tōng cháng shì fēi zhèng shì de 。xǔ duō qí tā kē xué jiā yī yàng ,wǒ men jué de ,wǒ men bù yīng gāi bǎ zì jǐ tài dāng huí shì 。zuò wéi dú zhě kě yǐ kàn dào ,wǒ men kàn dào le yī gè yú kuài de xiāo qiǎn ,ér bú shì zuò wéi yī gè yán jùn de ,chén mèn de fāng shì móu shēng de kē xué 。

Vocabulary

1. subculture 亚文化群(指在一个社会或一种文化内具有独特性的一群人)
2. superficial 肤浅的,浅薄的,表面的
3. lay person 外行,门外汉,俗人
4. musty 发毒的,老朽的,陈腐的
5. gadget 小玩意儿,小配件,新发明
6. pervasive 渗透的,弥漫的,遍布的
7. populate 居住于……中,在……中占一席之地
8. implicit 含蓄的,内含的
9. unspecified 未特别提出的
10. offset 抵消,补偿

Science is a dominant theme in our culture. Since it touches almost every facet of our life, educated people need at least some acquaintance with its structure and operation. They should also have an understanding of the subculture in which scientists live and the kinds of people they are. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.
This book is written for the intelligent student or lay person whose acquaintance with science is superficial; for the person who has been presented with science as a musty storehouse of dried facts; for the person who sees the chief objective of science as the production of gadgets; and for the person who views the scientists as some sort of magician. The book can be used to supplement a course in any science, to accompany any course that attempts to give an understanding of the modern world, or – independently of any course – simply to provide a better understanding of science. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitudes and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are, and what they do. It will give them an awareness and understanding of the relationship between science and our culture and an appreciation of the roles science may play in our culture. In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture.
We have tried to present in this book an accurate and up-to-date picture of the scientific community and the people who populate it. That population has in recent years come to comprise more and more women. This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions. In discussing these changes and contribution, however, we are faced with a language that is implicitly sexist, one that uses male nouns or pronouns in referring to unspecified individuals. To offset this built-in bias, we have adopted the policy of using plural nouns and pronouns whenever possible and, when absolutely necessary, alternating he and she. This policy is far form being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgment of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of the human race equally.
We have also tried to make the book entertaining as well as informative. Our approach is usually informal. We feel, as do many other scientists, that we shouldn’t take ourselves too seriously. As the reader may observe, we see science as a delightful pastime rather than as a grim and dreary way to earn a living.

Chinese Learning Centre – Advertisers Perform a Useful Service to the Community

Chinese Learning Centre – Advertisers Perform a Useful Service to the Community

Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why they’re always coming in for criticism. Their critics seem to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion and because they have so much money to throw around. ‘It’s iniquitous,’ they say, ‘that this entirely unproductive industry (if we can call it that) should absorb millions of pounds each year. It only goes to show how much profit the big companies are making. Why don’t they stop advertising and reduce the price of their goods? After all, it’s the consumer who pays…’
The poor old consumer! He’d have to pay a great deal more if advertising didn’t create mass markets for products. It is precisely because of the heavy advertising that consumer goods are so cheap. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose of advertising is to sell goods. Another equally important function is to inform. A great deal of the knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know about. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding performance, price, etc., from an advertisement.
Lots of people pretend that they never read advertisements, but this claim may be seriously doubted. It is hardly possible not to read advertisements these days. And what fun they often are, too! Just think what a railway station or a newspaper would be like without advertisements. Would you enjoy gazing at a blank wall or reading railway byelaws while waiting for a train? Would you like to read only closely printed columns of news in your daily paper? A cheerful, witty advertisement makes such a difference to a drab wall or a newspaper full of the daily ration of calamities.
We must not forget, either, that advertising makes a positive contribution to our pockets. Newspapers, commercial radio and television companies could not subsist without this source of revenue. The fact that we pay so little for our daily paper, or can enjoy so many broadcast programmes is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers. Just think what a newspaper would cost if we had to pay its full price!
Another thing we mustn’t forget is the ‘small ads.’ which are in virtually every newspaper and magazine. What a tremendously useful service they perform for the community! Just about anything can be accomplished through these columns. For instance, you can find a job, buy or sell a house, announce a birth, marriage or death in what used to be called the ‘hatch, match and dispatch’ column but by far the most fascinating section is the personal or ‘agony’ column. No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offers such a deep insight into human nature. It’s the best advertisement for advertising there is!

廣告往往認為大,也許這就是為什麼他們總是在批評。他們的批評者似乎不滿,因為他們有一個自我推銷的天賦,因為他們有這麼多錢,到處亂扔。 “這是不公正的,”他們說,“這完全非生產性行業(如果我們可以調用它)應每年吸納數百萬英鎊。這只能顯示大公司多少利潤。他們為什麼不停止發布廣告,並降低商品的價格呢?畢竟,這是誰出錢的消費者……“
可憐的消費者!他必須更要付出很大的,如果廣告不為產品創造大眾市場。這恰恰是因為大量的廣告,有這麼便宜的消費品。但我們得到了錯誤的觀念,如果我們認為廣告的惟一目的是推銷商品。另一個同樣重要的功能是告知。一個很大的知識,我們有家居用品,主要是從我們讀到的廣告派生。廣告為我們介紹新產品,或者提醒我們那些我們已經知道存在。假如你想購買一台洗衣機,它是比可能你會獲得性能,價格等細節,從一個廣告,更多。
很多人假裝他們從來不看廣告,但這種說法可能是嚴重懷疑。不看廣告,這些天幾乎是不可能的。有什麼好玩的,他們往往是太多!試想想,什麼火車站或報紙沒有廣告會是什麼樣子。你會享受凝視著一個空白的牆壁,或閱讀鐵路家用商品,而等待一列火車?你想在你的報紙閱讀密切印新聞欄目?一個開朗,機智的廣告,使得這樣一個單調的牆壁或報紙災害的每日口糧不同。
要么,我們決不能忘記,廣告,我們的口袋作出積極貢獻。報紙,電台和電視公司無法生存,沒有這樣的收入來源。事實上,我們的報紙,我們付出這麼少,或可以享受這麼多的廣播節目,完全是由於廣告客戶所花的錢。試想想,如果我們不得不支付全價的一份報紙的成本!
我們絕不能忘記另一件事是“小廣告”。在幾乎所有的報紙和雜誌。非常有用的服務,他們執行的社區!通過這些列可以完成任何事情。例如,你可以找到一份工作,買進或賣出的房子,宣布在過去被稱為“孵化,比賽和調度”一欄,但到目前為止,最吸引人的部分是個人或痛苦的出生,結婚或死亡“列。沒有在報紙上的其他項目提供了這樣有趣的閱讀,或提供了這樣一個人性的深刻洞察。它的廣告是最好的廣告!

guǎng gào wǎng wǎng rèn wéi dà ,yě xǔ zhè jiù shì wéi shí me tā men zǒng shì zài pī píng 。tā men de pī píng zhě sì hū bù mǎn ,yīn wéi tā men yǒu yī gè zì wǒ tuī xiāo de tiān fù ,yīn wéi tā men yǒu zhè me duō qián ,dào chù luàn rēng 。 “zhè shì bù gōng zhèng de ,”tā men shuō ,“zhè wán quán fēi shēng chǎn xìng xíng yè ( rú guǒ wǒ men kě yǐ diào yòng tā ) yìng měi nián xī nà shù bǎi wàn yīng bàng 。zhè zhǐ néng xiǎn shì dà gōng sī duō shǎo lì rùn 。tā men wéi shí me bù tíng zhǐ fā bù guǎng gào ,bìng jiàng dī shāng pǐn de jià gé ne ?bì jìng ,zhè shì shuí chū qián de xiāo fèi zhě ……“
kě lián de xiāo fèi zhě !tā bì xū gēng yào fù chū hěn dà de ,rú guǒ guǎng gào bù wéi chǎn pǐn chuàng zào dà zhòng shì chǎng 。zhè qià qià shì yīn wéi dà liàng de guǎng gào ,yǒu zhè me biàn yí de xiāo fèi pǐn 。dàn wǒ men dé dào le cuò wù de guān niàn ,rú guǒ wǒ men rèn wéi guǎng gào de wéi yī mù dì shì tuī xiāo shāng pǐn 。lìng yī gè tóng yàng zhòng yào de gōng néng shì gào zhī 。yī gè hěn dà de zhī shí ,wǒ men yǒu jiā jū yòng pǐn ,zhǔ yào shì cóng wǒ men dú dào de guǎng gào pài shēng 。guǎng gào wéi wǒ men jiè shào xīn chǎn pǐn ,huò zhě tí xǐng wǒ men nèi xiē wǒ men yǐ jīng zhī dào cún zài 。jiǎ rú nǐ xiǎng gòu mǎi yī tái xǐ yī jī ,tā shì bǐ kě néng nǐ huì huò de xìng néng ,jià gé děng xì jié ,cóng yī gè guǎng gào ,gèng duō 。
hěn duō rén jiǎ zhuāng tā men cóng lái bù kàn guǎng gào ,dàn zhè zhǒng shuō fǎ kě néng shì yán zhòng huái yí 。bù kàn guǎng gào ,zhè xiē tiān jī hū shì bù kě néng de 。yǒu shí me hǎo wán de ,tā men wǎng wǎng shì tài duō !shì xiǎng xiǎng ,shí me huǒ chē zhàn huò bào zhǐ méi yǒu guǎng gào huì shì shí me yàng zǐ 。nǐ huì xiǎng shòu níng shì zhù yī gè kòng bái de qiáng bì ,huò yuè dú tiě lù jiā yòng shāng pǐn ,ér děng dāi yī liè huǒ chē ?nǐ xiǎng zài nǐ de bào zhǐ yuè dú mì qiè yìn xīn wén lán mù ?yī gè kāi lǎng ,jī zhì de guǎng gào ,shǐ de zhè yàng yī gè dān diào de qiáng bì huò bào zhǐ zāi hài de měi rì kǒu liáng bù tóng 。
yào me ,wǒ men jué bù néng wàng jì ,guǎng gào ,wǒ men de kǒu dài zuò chū jī jí gòng xiàn 。bào zhǐ ,diàn tái hé diàn shì gōng sī wú fǎ shēng cún ,méi yǒu zhè yàng de shōu rù lái yuán 。shì shí shàng ,wǒ men de bào zhǐ ,wǒ men fù chū zhè me shǎo ,huò kě yǐ xiǎng shòu zhè me duō de guǎng bō jié mù ,wán quán shì yóu yū guǎng gào kè hù suǒ huā de qián 。shì xiǎng xiǎng ,rú guǒ wǒ men bù dé bù zhī fù quán jià de yī fèn bào zhǐ de chéng běn !
wǒ men jué bù néng wàng jì lìng yī jiàn shì shì “xiǎo guǎng gào ”。zài jī hū suǒ yǒu de bào zhǐ hé zá zhì 。fēi cháng yǒu yòng de fú wù ,tā men zhí xíng de shè qū !tōng guò zhè xiē liè kě yǐ wán chéng rèn hé shì qíng 。lì rú ,nǐ kě yǐ zhǎo dào yī fèn gōng zuò ,mǎi jìn huò mài chū de fáng zi ,xuān bù zài guò qù bèi chēng wéi “fū huà ,bǐ sài hé diào dù ”yī lán ,dàn dào mù qián wéi zhǐ ,zuì xī yǐn rén de bù fèn shì gè rén huò tòng kǔ de chū shēng ,jié hūn huò sǐ wáng “liè 。méi yǒu zài bào zhǐ shàng de qí tā xiàng mù tí gōng le zhè yàng yǒu qù de yuè dú ,huò tí gōng le zhè yàng yī gè rén xìng de shēn kè dòng chá 。tā de guǎng gào shì zuì hǎo de guǎng gào !

Vocabulary
1. come in for ( sth. ) 是某事物的对象,吸引(某事物),获得
2. flair 天资,天分
3. iniquitous 极邪恶的,极不公正的
4. drab 单调的,乏味的
5. subsist 活下去,生存下去,维持下去
6. hatch 孵化(指生孩子)
7. match 匹配,婚姻
8. dispatch 派遣,发送
9. agony 极大痛苦,煎熬
10. agony column (报刊中关于个人疑难问题征询意见的)读者来信专栏

Mandarin Learning Centre – Dangerous Sports Should be Banned by Law

Mandarin Learning Centre – Dangerous Sports Should be Banned by Law

When you think of the tremendous technological progress we have made, it’s amazing how little we have developed in other respects. We may speak contemptuously of the poor old Romans because they relished the orgies of slaughter that went on in their arenas. We may despise them because they mistook these goings on for entertainment. We may forgive them condescendingly because they lived 2000 years ago and obviously knew no better. But are our feelings of superiority really justified? Are we any less blood-thirsty? Why do boxing matches, for instance, attract such universal interest? Don’t the spectators who attend them hope they will see some violence? Human beings remains as bloodthirsty as ever they were. The only difference between ourselves and the Romans is that while they were honest enough to admit that they enjoyed watching hungey lions tearing people apart and eating them alive, we find all sorts of sophisticated arguments to defend sports which should have been banned long age; sports which are quite as barbarous as, say, public hangings or bearbaiting.
It really is incredible that in this day and age we should still allow hunting or bull-fighting, that we should be prepared to sit back and watch two men batter each other to pulp in a boxing ring, that we should be relatively unmoved by the sight of one or a number of racing cars crashing and bursting into flames. Let us not deceive ourselves. Any talk of ‘the sporting spirit’ is sheer hypocrisy. People take part in violent sports because of the high rewards they bring. Spectators are willing to pay vast sums of money to see violence. A world heavyweight championship match, for instance, is front page news. Millions of people are disappointed if a big fight is over in two rounds instead of fifteen. They feel disappointment because they have been deprived of the exquisite pleasure of witnessing prolonged torture and violence.
Why should we ban violent sports if people enjoy them so much? You may well ask. The answer is simple: they are uncivilized. For centuries man has been trying to improve himself spiritually and emotionally – admittedly with little success. But at least we no longer tolerate the sight madmen cooped up in cages, or public floggings of any of the countless other barbaric practices which were common in the past. Prisons are no longer the grim forbidding places they used to be. Social welfare systems are in operation in many parts of the world. Big efforts are being made to distribute wealth fairly. These changes have come about not because human beings have suddenly and unaccountably improved, but because positive steps were taken to change the law. The law is the biggest instrument of social change that we have and it may exert great civilizing influence. If we banned dangerous and violent sports, we would be moving one step further to improving mankind. We would recognize that violence is degrading and unworthy of human beings.

當你認為我們已經取得了巨大的技術進步,這是驚人的一點,我們已經在其他方面的發展。我們可以說窮人的老羅馬輕蔑,因為他們不情願在自己的舞台上屠宰狂歡​​。輕視他們,因為他們把這些屠殺視為娛樂。我們可以原諒他們的謙遜,因為他們生活在2000年前,顯然知道沒有更好的。但優勢,我們的感情真的合理嗎?我們是嗜血任何少嗎?為什麼拳擊比賽,例如,吸引這樣的普遍關注?沒有觀眾出席,他們希望他們能看到一些暴力呢?人類以往一樣,他們是嗜血。自己和羅馬人之間唯一的區別是,雖然很誠實,他們承認,他們喜歡看hungey獅子撕裂人除了吃他們活著,我們發現各種複雜的參數,以保衛運動應該被禁止的長齡;體育這是相當野蠻,說,公共帷或bearbaiting。
這真的是不可思議的,在這個時代,我們仍然應該允許狩獵或鬥牛,我們應準備坐下來觀看連擊在擂台上互相紙漿那麼許多兩名男子,相對的無動於衷,我們應該一個或賽車墜毀並起火的汽車數量的視線。讓我們不要自欺欺人。任何“體育精神”的講座,是純粹的虛偽。人參加劇烈運動,因為他們帶來了高回報的一部分。觀眾都願意付出大量金錢,是為了看到暴力。例如,一個世界重量級冠軍​​比賽,是頭版新聞。數以百萬計的人感到失望,如果在兩個回合,而不是十五過度大干一場。他們感到失望,因為他們已被剝奪目睹長時間的酷刑和暴力的精緻樂趣。
我們為什麼要禁止劇烈運動,如果人們享受他們這麼多嗎?你也許會問。答案很簡單:他們是不文明的。人千百年來一直在努力改善自己的精神和情感 – 誠然,收效甚微。但至少我們不再容忍視線瘋子關在籠子裡,或任何其他無數的野蠻行徑,這是在過去的共同當眾鞭撻。監獄不再嚴峻禁止的地方,他們曾經是。社會福利制度是在世界上許多地方的運作。正在作出很大的努力,在財富公平分配。這些變化都對沒有因為人類突然莫名其妙地改善,但由於採取了積極措施,以改變法律。法律是社會變革,我們已經和它可能發揮巨大的文明影響最大的儀器。如果我們禁止危險和暴力的運動,我們將前進了一步。進一步改善人類。我們認識到,暴力是有辱人格和人類不配。

dāng nǐ rèn wéi wǒ men yǐ jīng qǔ dé le jù dà de jì shù jìn bù ,zhè shì jīng rén de yī diǎn ,wǒ men yǐ jīng zài qí tā fāng miàn de fā zhǎn 。wǒ men kě yǐ shuō qióng rén de lǎo luó mǎ qīng miè ,yīn wéi tā men bù qíng yuàn zài zì jǐ de wǔ tái shàng tú zǎi kuáng huān ​​。qīng shì tā men ,yīn wéi tā men bǎ zhè xiē tú shā shì wéi yú lè 。wǒ men kě yǐ yuán liàng tā men de qiān xùn ,yīn wéi tā men shēng huó zài 2000 nián qián ,xiǎn rán zhī dào méi yǒu gèng hǎo de 。dàn yōu shì ,wǒ men de gǎn qíng zhēn de hé lǐ mɑ ?wǒ men shì shì xuè rèn hé shǎo mɑ ?wéi shí me quán jī bǐ sài ,lì rú ,xī yǐn zhè yàng de pǔ biàn guān zhù ?méi yǒu guān zhòng chū xí ,tā men xī wàng tā men néng kàn dào yī xiē bào lì ne ?rén lèi yǐ wǎng yī yàng ,tā men shì shì xuè 。zì jǐ hé luó mǎ rén zhī jiān wéi yī de qū bié shì ,suī rán hěn chéng shí ,tā men chéng rèn ,tā men xǐ huān kàn hungey shī zǐ sī liè rén chú le chī tā men huó zhù ,wǒ men fā xiàn gè zhǒng fù zá de cān shù ,yǐ bǎo wèi yùn dòng yìng gāi bèi jìn zhǐ de cháng líng ; tǐ yù zhè shì xiāng dāng yě mán ,shuō ,gōng gòng wéi huò bearbaiting。
zhè zhēn de shì bù kě sī yì de ,zài zhè gè shí dài ,wǒ men réng rán yìng gāi yǔn xǔ shòu liè huò dòu niú ,wǒ men yìng zhǔn bèi zuò xià lái guān kàn lián jī zài lèi tái shàng hù xiāng zhǐ jiāng nà me xǔ duō liǎng míng nán zǐ ,xiāng duì de wú dòng yū zhōng ,wǒ men yìng gāi yī gè huò sài chē zhuì huǐ bìng qǐ huǒ de qì chē shù liàng de shì xiàn 。ràng wǒ men bú yào zì qī qī rén 。rèn hé “tǐ yù jīng shén ”de jiǎng zuò ,shì chún cuì de xū wěi 。rén shēn jiā jù liè yùn dòng ,yīn wéi tā men dài lái le gāo huí bào de yī bù fèn 。guān zhòng dōu yuàn yì fù chū dà liàng jīn qián ,shì wèi le kàn dào bào lì 。lì rú ,yī gè shì jiè zhòng liàng jí guān jūn ​​ bǐ sài ,shì tóu bǎn xīn wén 。shǔ yǐ bǎi wàn jì de rén gǎn dào shī wàng ,rú guǒ zài liǎng gè huí hé ,ér bú shì shí wǔ guò dù dà gàn yī cháng 。tā men gǎn dào shī wàng ,yīn wéi tā men yǐ bèi bāo duó mù dǔ cháng shí jiān de kù xíng hé bào lì de jīng zhì lè qù 。
wǒ men wéi shí me yào jìn zhǐ jù liè yùn dòng ,rú guǒ rén men xiǎng shòu tā men zhè me duō mɑ ?nǐ yě xǔ huì wèn 。dá àn hěn jiǎn dān : tā men shì bù wén míng de 。rén qiān bǎi nián lái yī zhí zài nǔ lì gǎi shàn zì jǐ de jīng shén hé qíng gǎn – chéng rán ,shōu xiào shèn wēi 。dàn zhì shǎo wǒ men bù zài róng rěn shì xiàn fēng zǐ guān zài lóng zǐ lǐ ,huò rèn hé qí tā wú shù de yě mán xíng jìng ,zhè shì zài guò qù de gòng tóng dāng zhòng biān tà 。jiān yù bù zài yán jùn jìn zhǐ de dì fāng ,tā men zēng jīng shì 。shè huì fú lì zhì dù shì zài shì jiè shàng xǔ duō dì fāng de yùn zuò 。zhèng zài zuò chū hěn dà de nǔ lì ,zài cái fù gōng píng fēn pèi 。zhè xiē biàn huà dōu duì méi yǒu yīn wéi rén lèi tū rán mò míng qí miào dì gǎi shàn ,dàn yóu yū cǎi qǔ le jī jí cuò shī ,yǐ gǎi biàn fǎ lǜ 。fǎ lǜ shì shè huì biàn gé ,wǒ men yǐ jīng hé tā kě néng fā huī jù dà de wén míng yǐng xiǎng zuì dà de yí qì 。rú guǒ wǒ men jìn zhǐ wēi xiǎn hé bào lì de yùn dòng ,wǒ men jiāng qián jìn le yī bù 。jìn yī bù gǎi shàn rén lèi 。wǒ men rèn shí dào ,bào lì shì yǒu rǔ rén gé hé rén lèi bù pèi 。

Vocabulary

1. relish 从……获得乐处,享受
2. orgy 狂欢,放纵
3. arena 竞技场,活动或斗争的场所
4. blood-thirsty 残忍的,嗜血的
5. bear-baiting 逗熊游戏
6. bull-fight 斗牛
7. batter 猛击,连续地猛打/捶,乱打
8. pulp 成纸浆,成软块
9. burst into flames 突然燃烧起来/着火
10. grim 令人窒息的,简陋的
11. coop up 把……关起来

Mandarin Course Advanced – The only way to travel is by your foot

Mandarin Course Advanced – The only way to travel is by your foot

The past ages of man have all been carefully labeled by anthropologists. Descriptions like ‘ Palaeolithic Man’, ‘Neolithic Man’, etc., neatly sum up whole periods. When the time comes for anthropologists to turn their attention to the twentieth century, they will surely choose the label ‘Legless Man’. Histories of the time will go something like this: ‘in the twentieth century, people forgot how to use their legs. Men and women moved about in cars, buses and trains from a very early age. There were lifts and escalators in all large buildings to prevent people from walking. This situation was forced upon earth dwellers of that time because of miles each day. But the surprising thing is that they didn’t use their legs even when they went on holiday. They built cable railways, ski-lifts and roads to the top of every huge mountain. All the beauty spots on earth were marred by the presence of large car parks. ’
The future history books might also record that we were deprived of the use of our eyes. In our hurry to get from one place to another, we failed to see anything on the way. Air travel gives you a bird’s-eye view of the world – or even less if the wing of the aircraft happens to get in your way. When you travel by car or train a blurred image of the countryside constantly smears the windows. Car drivers, in particular, are forever obsessed with the urge to go on and on: they never want to stop. Is it the lure of the great motorways, or what? And as for sea travel, it hardly deserves mention. It is perfectly summed up in the words of the old song: ‘I joined the navy to see the world, and what did I see? I saw the sea.’ The typical twentieth-century traveler is the man who always says ‘I’ve been there. ’ You mention the remotest, most evocative place-names in the world like El Dorado, Kabul, Irkutsk and someone is bound to say ‘I’ve been there’ – meaning, ‘I drove through it at 100 miles an hour on the way to somewhere else. ’
When you travel at high speeds, the present means nothing: you live mainly in the future because you spend most of your time looking forward to arriving at some other place. But actual arrival, when it is achieved, is meaningless. You want to move on again. By traveling like this, you suspend all experience; the present ceases to be a reality: you might just as well be dead. The traveler on foot, on the other hand, lives constantly in the present. For him traveling and arriving are one and the same thing: he arrives somewhere with every step he makes. He experiences the present moment with his eyes, his ears and the whole of his body. At the end of his journey he feels a delicious physical weariness. He knows that sound. Satisfying sleep will be his: the just reward of all true travellers.

男子歷代都被仔細地標記的人類學家。像“舊石器時代的人”,“新石器時代人”等的描述,整齊地總結了整個期間。當人類學家的時間來把注意力轉向了二十世紀,他們肯定會選擇“無腿人”的標籤。歷史的時間會是這樣的:“在二十世紀,人們忘了如何使用他們的腿。從非常早的年齡,男性和女性在汽車,公共汽車和火車約。在所有大型建築物的電梯和自動扶梯,以防止走路的人。這種情況下被迫因為英里每一天後,當時的地球居民。但令人驚訝的是,他們沒有使用他們的腿,甚至當他們去度假。他們修建了電纜鐵路,滑雪-升降機和道路的的到的作者:每一個巨大的的山區的的頁最上方。地球上所有的風景區,由在場的大型停車場毀損。 “
未來的歷史書,也可能會記錄,我們利用我們的眼睛被剝奪。在我們急於從一個地方到另一個中,我們沒有看到任何方式。空中旅行給你一個鳥瞰世界 – 甚至更少,如果飛機機翼碰巧讓你的方式。當你乘汽車或火車模糊圖像的農村不斷塗片窗戶。尤其是汽車司機,永遠痴迷的衝動去和他們從來沒有要停止。這是偉大的高速公路,或者是什麼誘惑嗎?和海上旅行,它幾乎不值得一提的。這是完全總結了在老歌曲的話:“我加入了海軍看世界,我看到什麼?我看見了大海。’,該典型的的第二十屆-世紀的的旅行的旅客是世衛組織總是說’我已經去過那兒的的該名男子。 “你提到最偏遠,最令人回味的地方名字在世界上,像埃爾多拉多,喀布爾,伊爾庫茨克,勢必有人說:”我去過那兒“ – 意思是,”我在100英里的時速開車方式通過到別的地方。 “
當你在高速旅行,現在沒什麼意思:你主要生活在未來,因為你花你的時間最期待到達其他一些地方。但是,實際的到來,當它被實現,是沒有意義的。你想再次移動。通過這樣的旅行,你暫停所有的經驗,現在不再是一個現實:你或許也同樣是死。徒步旅行者,另一方面,卻總是生活在當下。對於他來說,旅行和到達是一個同樣的事情:他到達的地方,他做的每一步。他經歷了與他的眼睛,耳朵和整個身體的目前。在他的旅程結束時,他感到一種愉悅的身體疲倦。他知悉那個的聲音。滿足睡眠將是他的一切真正旅行者的獎勵。

nán zǐ lì dài dōu bèi zǎi xì dì biāo jì de rén lèi xué jiā 。xiàng “jiù shí qì shí dài de rén ”,“xīn shí qì shí dài rén ”děng de miáo shù ,zhěng qí dì zǒng jié le zhěng gè qī jiān 。dāng rén lèi xué jiā de shí jiān lái bǎ zhù yì lì zhuǎn xiàng le èr shí shì jì ,tā men kěn dìng huì xuǎn zé “wú tuǐ rén ”de biāo qiān 。lì shǐ de shí jiān huì shì zhè yàng de :“zài èr shí shì jì ,rén men wàng liǎo rú hé shǐ yòng tā men de tuǐ 。cóng fēi cháng zǎo de nián líng ,nán xìng hé nǚ xìng zài qì chē ,gōng gòng qì chē hé huǒ chē yuē 。zài suǒ yǒu dà xíng jiàn zhù wù de diàn tī hé zì dòng fú tī ,yǐ fáng zhǐ zǒu lù de rén 。zhè zhǒng qíng kuàng xià bèi pò yīn wéi yīng lǐ měi yì tiān hòu ,dāng shí de dì qiú jū mín 。dàn lìng rén jīng yà de shì ,tā men méi yǒu shǐ yòng tā men de tuǐ ,shèn zhì dāng tā men qù dù jià 。tā men xiū jiàn le diàn lǎn tiě lù ,huá xuě – shēng jiàng jī hé dào lù de dí dào de zuò zhě : měi yī gè jù dà de dí shān qū de dí yè zuì shàng fāng 。dì qiú shàng suǒ yǒu de fēng jǐng qū ,yóu zài chǎng de dà xíng tíng chē chǎng huǐ sǔn 。 “
wèi lái de lì shǐ shū ,yě kě néng huì jì lù ,wǒ men lì yòng wǒ men de yǎn jīng bèi bāo duó 。zài wǒ men jí yū cóng yī gè dì fāng dào lìng yī gè zhōng ,wǒ men méi yǒu kàn dào rèn hé fāng shì 。kōng zhōng lǚ xíng gěi nǐ yī gè niǎo kàn shì jiè – shèn zhì gèng shǎo ,rú guǒ fēi jī jī yì pèng qiǎo ràng nǐ de fāng shì 。dāng nǐ chéng qì chē huò huǒ chē mó hu tú xiàng de nóng cūn bù duàn tú piàn chuāng hù 。yóu qí shì qì chē sī jī ,yǒng yuǎn chī mí de chōng dòng qù hé tā men cóng lái méi yǒu yào tíng zhǐ 。zhè shì wěi dà de gāo sù gōng lù ,huò zhě shì shí me yòu huò mɑ ?hé hǎi shàng lǚ xíng ,tā jī hū bù zhí dé yī tí de 。zhè shì wán quán zǒng jié le zài lǎo gē qǔ de huà :“wǒ jiā rù le hǎi jūn kàn shì jiè ,wǒ kàn dào shí me ?wǒ kàn jiàn le dà hǎi 。’,gāi diǎn xíng de dí dì èr shí jiè – shì jì de dí lǚ xíng de lǚ kè shì shì wèi zǔ zhī zǒng shì shuō ’ wǒ yǐ jīng qù guò nà ér de dí gāi míng nán zǐ 。 “nǐ tí dào zuì piān yuǎn ,zuì lìng rén huí wèi de dì fāng míng zì zài shì jiè shàng ,xiàng āi ěr duō lā duō ,kā bù ěr ,yī ěr kù cí kè ,shì bì yǒu rén shuō :”wǒ qù guò nà ér “ – yì sī shì ,”wǒ zài 100 yīng lǐ de shí sù kāi chē fāng shì tōng guò dào bié de dì fāng 。 “
dāng nǐ zài gāo sù lǚ xíng ,xiàn zài méi shí me yì sī : nǐ zhǔ yào shēng huó zài wèi lái ,yīn wéi nǐ huā nǐ de shí jiān zuì qī dài dào dá qí tā yī xiē dì fāng 。dàn shì ,shí jì de dào lái ,dāng tā bèi shí xiàn ,shì méi yǒu yì yì de 。nǐ xiǎng zài cì yí dòng 。tōng guò zhè yàng de lǚ xíng ,nǐ zàn tíng suǒ yǒu de jīng yàn ,xiàn zài bù zài shì yī gè xiàn shí : nǐ huò xǔ yě tóng yàng shì sǐ 。tú bù lǚ xíng zhě ,lìng yī fāng miàn ,què zǒng shì shēng huó zài dāng xià 。duì yū tā lái shuō ,lǚ xíng hé dào dá shì yī gè tóng yàng de shì qíng : tā dào dá de dì fāng ,tā zuò de měi yī bù 。tā jīng lì le yǔ tā de yǎn jīng ,ěr duǒ hé zhěng gè shēn tǐ de mù qián 。zài tā de lǚ chéng jié shù shí ,tā gǎn dào yī zhǒng yú yuè de shēn tǐ pí juàn 。tā zhī xī nà gè de shēng yīn 。mǎn zú shuì mián jiāng shì tā de yī qiè zhēn zhèng lǚ xíng zhě de jiǎng lì 。

VOCABULARY
1. Palaeolithic 旧石器时代的
2. Neolithic 新石器时代的
3. escalator 自动电梯,自动扶梯
4. ski-lift 载送滑雪者上坡的装置
5. mar 损坏,毁坏
6. blur 模糊不清,朦胧
7. smear 涂,弄脏,弄模糊(尤指画面、轮廓等)
8. evocative 引起回忆的,唤起感情的
9. El Dorado (由当时西班牙征服者想象中的南美洲)黄金国,宝山,富庶之乡
10. Kabul 喀布尔(阿富汗首都)
11. Irkutsk 伊尔库茨克(原苏联亚洲城市)

Mandarin Advanced Course – Stricter Traffic Law can Prevent Accidents

Mandarin Advanced Course – Stricter Traffic Law can Prevent Accidents

從健康的角度來看,我們生活在一個奇妙的時代。我們從出生免疫,對許多最危險的疾病。大量的一次致命的疾病,現在可以由現代藥物和手術治愈。幾乎可以肯定的是,有一天補救辦法,將發現的最頑固的其餘疾病。平均預期壽命已大大增加。不過,雖然生活幸福長壽的可能性比以往任何時候都更大,我們每天都目睹道路上的男人,婦女和兒童的令人難以置信的屠殺。與電動車的男子!這是一個永無止境的戰鬥中失去的男子。死於車禍死亡每年成千上萬的人在世界各地,我們正靜靜地坐在後面,讓它發生。
它已被正確地說,當一個人坐在方向盤後面,他的車成為他個性的延伸。毫無疑問,電動車往往會帶來一個人最糟糕的素質。誰是一般的寧靜和愉快的人可能會變得面目全非時,他們背後的方向盤。他們發誓,他們是不良舉止和積極進取,蓄意為兩年的孩子,並極度自私。似乎他們所有的隱藏的挫折,失望和嫉妒所帶來的駕駛行為的表面。
令人驚奇的是,社會微笑對司機寬厚,似乎縱容他的行為。一切都是他的方便。城市都因為沉重的悲劇,成為幾乎無法居住;城鎮褻瀆醜陋巨大的停車場;農村道路網絡;和質量年出欄成為無非統計,以方便被遺忘。
它是世界代碼的建立是為了減少這種無謂的生命浪費的時候了。駕駛方面,一些國家的法律是出了名的鬆懈,甚至最嚴格的不夠嚴格。只能有一個被普遍接受的代碼上的事故發生率顯著有益的作用。這裡有幾個例子,一些可能做的事情。應該標準化和困難得多,比的是駕駛考試;所有司機應採取測試每隔三年左右的年輕人被允許駕駛任何車輛的年齡應提高到至少21所有車輛應放在通過嚴格的年度測試安全。甚至血液中的酒精最小金額可能會損害一個人的駕駛能力。目前酒後駕車的法律(如存在的話)應該是瘋了更嚴格。在所有道路上,應判處最高和最低的車速限制。各國政府應放下安全規格,製造商,已在美國完成。應禁止所有廣告,強調動力和性能。這些措施可能聽起來不相稱苛刻。但可以肯定不應該被視為嚴重針鋒相對的結果,如果減少對人類生命的每年收費。畢竟,世界是人類,沒有電機車。

cóng jiàn kāng de jiǎo dù lái kàn ,wǒ men shēng huó zài yī gè qí miào de shí dài 。wǒ men cóng chū shēng miǎn yì ,duì xǔ duō zuì wēi xiǎn de jí bìng 。dà liàng de yí cì zhì mìng de jí bìng ,xiàn zài kě yǐ yóu xiàn dài yào wù hé shǒu shù zhì yù 。jī hū kě yǐ kěn dìng de shì ,yǒu yì tiān bǔ jiù bàn fǎ ,jiāng fā xiàn de zuì wán gù de qí yú jí bìng 。píng jūn yù qī shòu mìng yǐ dà dà zēng jiā 。bù guò ,suī rán shēng huó xìng fú cháng shòu de kě néng xìng bǐ yǐ wǎng rèn hé shí hòu dōu gèng dà ,wǒ men měi tiān dōu mù dǔ dào lù shàng de nán rén ,fù nǚ hé ér tóng de lìng rén nán yǐ zhì xìn de tú shā 。yǔ diàn dòng chē de nán zǐ !zhè shì yī gè yǒng wú zhǐ jìng de zhàn dòu zhōng shī qù de nán zǐ 。sǐ yū chē huò sǐ wáng měi nián chéng qiān shàng wàn de rén zài shì jiè gè dì ,wǒ men zhèng jìng jìng dì zuò zài hòu miàn ,ràng tā fā shēng 。
tā yǐ bèi zhèng què dì shuō ,dāng yī gè rén zuò zài fāng xiàng pán hòu miàn ,tā de chē chéng wéi tā gè xìng de yán shēn 。háo wú yí wèn ,diàn dòng chē wǎng wǎng huì dài lái yī gè rén zuì zāo gāo de sù zhì 。shuí shì yì bān de níng jìng hé yú kuài de rén kě néng huì biàn de miàn mù quán fēi shí ,tā men bèi hòu de fāng xiàng pán 。tā men fā shì ,tā men shì bù liáng jǔ zhǐ hé jī jí jìn qǔ ,xù yì wéi liǎng nián de hái zi ,bìng jí dù zì sī 。sì hū tā men suǒ yǒu de yǐn cáng de cuò zhé ,shī wàng hé jí dù suǒ dài lái de jià shǐ xíng wéi de biǎo miàn 。
lìng rén jīng qí de shì ,shè huì wēi xiào duì sī jī kuān hòu ,sì hū zòng róng tā de xíng wéi 。yī qiè dōu shì tā de fāng biàn 。chéng shì dōu yīn wéi chén zhòng de bēi jù ,chéng wéi jī hū wú fǎ jū zhù ; chéng zhèn xiè dú chǒu lòu jù dà de tíng chē chǎng ; nóng cūn dào lù wǎng luò ; hé zhì liàng nián chū lán chéng wéi wú fēi tǒng jì ,yǐ fāng biàn bèi yí wàng 。
tā shì shì jiè dài mǎ de jiàn lì shì wèi le jiǎn shǎo zhè zhǒng wú wèi de shēng mìng làng fèi de shí hòu le 。jià shǐ fāng miàn ,yī xiē guó jiā de fǎ lǜ shì chū le míng de sōng xiè ,shèn zhì zuì yán gé de bù gòu yán gé 。zhǐ néng yǒu yī gè bèi pǔ biàn jiē shòu de dài mǎ shàng de shì gù fā shēng lǜ xiǎn zhù yǒu yì de zuò yòng 。zhè lǐ yǒu jǐ gè lì zi ,yī xiē kě néng zuò de shì qíng 。yìng gāi biāo zhǔn huà hé kùn nán de duō ,bǐ de shì jià shǐ kǎo shì ; suǒ yǒu sī jī yìng cǎi qǔ cè shì měi gé sān nián zuǒ yòu de nián qīng rén bèi yǔn xǔ jià shǐ rèn hé chē liàng de nián líng yìng tí gāo dào zhì shǎo 21 suǒ yǒu chē liàng yìng fàng zài tōng guò yán gé de nián dù cè shì ān quán 。shèn zhì xuè yè zhōng de jiǔ jīng zuì xiǎo jīn é kě néng huì sǔn hài yī gè rén de jià shǐ néng lì 。mù qián jiǔ hòu jià chē de fǎ lǜ ( rú cún zài de huà ) yìng gāi shì fēng le gēng yán gé 。zài suǒ yǒu dào lù shàng ,yìng pàn chǔ zuì gāo hé zuì dī de chē sù xiàn zhì 。gè guó zhèng fǔ yìng fàng xià ān quán guī gé ,zhì zào shāng ,yǐ zài měi guó wán chéng 。yìng jìn zhǐ suǒ yǒu guǎng gào ,qiáng diào dòng lì hé xìng néng 。zhè xiē cuò shī kě néng tīng qǐ lái bù xiāng chèn kē kè 。dàn kě yǐ kěn dìng bù yīng gāi bèi shì wéi yán zhòng zhēn fēng xiāng duì de jiē guǒ ,rú guǒ jiǎn shǎo duì rén lèi shēng mìng de měi nián shōu fèi 。bì jìng ,shì jiè shì rén lèi ,méi yǒu diàn jī chē 。

From the health point of view we are living in a marvelous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous diseases. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now be cured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads. Man versus the motor-car ! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing. Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly killed each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen.
It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personality. There is no doubt that the motor-car often brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind a steering-wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-years-olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments and jealousies seem to be brought to the surface by the act of driving.
The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the motorist and seems to condone his behaviour. Everything is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy tragic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than a statistic, to be conveniently forgotten.
It is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste of human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Here are a few examples of some the things that might be done. The driving test should be standardized and made far more difficult than it is; all the drivers should be made to take a test every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be mad much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh. But surely nothing should be considered as to severe if tit results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings, not motor-cars.

Vocabulary
1. immunise 使免疫,使免除
2. expectation of life = life expectancy 平均寿命
3. versus = against 对顶,反对
4. mutilate 伤害
5. wilful 任性的,固执的
6. benign 宽厚的,仁慈的
7. condone 宽容
8. desecrate 亵渎,玷污
9. code 法规,规定,惯例
10. stringent 严格的,紧急的,迫切的
11. performance 演出,成品,这里是指car’s behavior such as speed, function etc.可译成行为,汽车行为、功能等。

Mandarin Course – Dropouts for Ph. D. s

Mandarin Course – Dropouts for Ph. D. s

Educators are seriously concerned about the high rate of dropouts among the doctor of philosophy candidates and the consequent loss of talent to a nation in need of Ph. D. s. Some have placed the dropouts loss as high as 50 percent. The extent of the loss was, however, largely a matter of expert guessing. Last week a well-rounded study was published. It was published. It was based on 22,000 questionnaires sent to former graduate students who were enrolled in 24 universities and it seemed to show many past fears to be groundless.
The dropouts rate was found to be 31 per cent, and in most cases the dropouts, while not completing the Ph. D. requirement, went on to productive work. They are not only doing well financially, but, according to the report, are not far below the income levels of those who went on to complete their doctorates.
Discussing the study last week, Dr. Tucker said the project was initiated ‘because of the concern frequently expressed by graduate faculties and administrators that some of the individuals who dropped out of Ph. D. programs were capable of competing the requirement for the degree. Attrition at the Ph. D. level is also thought to be a waste of precious faculty time and a drain on university resources already being used to capacity. Some people expressed the opinion that the shortage of highly trained specialists and college teachers could be reduced by persuading the dropouts to return to graduate schools to complete the Ph. D.’
“The results of our research” Dr. Tucker concluded, “did not support these opinions.”
1. Lack of motivation was the principal reason for dropping out.
2. Most dropouts went as far in their doctoral program as was consistent with their levels of ability or their specialities.
3. Most dropouts are now engaged in work consistent with their education and motivation.
Nearly 75 per cent of the dropouts said there was no academic reason for their decision, but those who mentioned academic reason cited failure to pass the qualifying examination, uncompleted research and failure to pass language exams. Among the single most important personal reasons identified by dropouts for non-completion of their Ph. D. program, lack of finances was marked by 19 per cent.
As an indication of how well the dropouts were doing, a chart showed 2% in humanities were receiving $ 20,000 and more annually while none of the Ph. D. ‘s with that background reached this figure. The Ph. D. ‘s shone in the $ 7,500 to $ 15,000 bracket with 78% at that level against 50% for the dropouts. This may also be an indication of the fact that top salaries in the academic fields, where Ph. D. ‘s tend to rise to the highest salaries, are still lagging behind other fields.
As to the possibility of getting dropouts back on campus, the outlook was glum. The main condition which would have to prevail for at least 25 % of the dropouts who might consider returning to graduate school would be to guarantee that they would retain their present level of income and in some cases their present job.

教育高輟學率之間的醫生哲學候選人的和隨之而來的人才流失需要博士學位S的一個民族的嚴重關注。一些輟學損失高達50%。損失的程度,但是,很大程度上是專家猜測的問題。上週一個成熟的研究結果發表。它被出版。它是基於22000份問卷發送到前者在24所​​大學參加,它似乎表明許多過去的擔心是毫無根據的研究生。
輟學率被認為是31%,在大多數情況下輟學,而沒有完成博士學位的要求,富有成效的工作。他們不僅做好財政,但是,根據該報告,都遠遠低於那些誰去完成自己的博士學位的收入水平。
上週討論研究,塔克博士表示,該項目開始因為經常通過研究生學院和管理員下降博士課程的一些人的個人能力的競爭程度的要求表示關注。博士水平的磨損也被認為是一種珍貴的教師時間,就已經被用來能力的大學資源流失浪費。有些人表示,訓練有素的專家和高校教師短缺可以通過降低說服輟學返回到畢業學校完成博士看來
“我們的研究結果”塔克博士總結:“不支持這些意見。”
1。缺乏動力是輟學的主要理由。
2。大多數輟學了遠在其博士課程,是與他們的能力或他們的專業水平相一致。
3。最輟學現在從事的工作與他們的教育和動機相一致。
近75%,輟學的受訪者表示他們的決定也沒有學術的原因,但提到學術原因引未能通過資格考試,未完成的研究和通過語言考試的失敗。在非完成自己的博士課程,缺​​乏資金的情況下,輟學的一個最重要的個人原因,標明了19%。
作為輟學如何好做的指示,圖表顯示,2%,在人文領取20,000元,而沒有“博士”與一個同樣背景的每年達到這個數字。博士的照78%,對50%的輟學水平在7500美元至15000美元。這也可能是一個跡象,仍然落後於其他領域的學科領域,其中博士的往往上升到最高的薪水,最高薪金的事實。
至於校園輟學的可能性,前景是悶悶不樂。主要的條件,這將有至少25%的輟學,他可能考慮返回研究生院為準將,以保證他們將保留其目前的收入和在某些情況下,他們目前的工作水平。

jiào yù gāo chuò xué lǜ zhī jiān de yī shēng zhé xué hòu xuǎn rén de hé suí zhī ér lái de rén cái liú shī xū yào bó shì xué wèi S de yī gè mín zú de yán zhòng guān zhù 。yī xiē chuò xué sǔn shī gāo dá 50%。sǔn shī de chéng dù ,dàn shì ,hěn dà chéng dù shàng shì zhuān jiā cāi cè de wèn tí 。shàng zhōu yī gè chéng shú de yán jiū jiē guǒ fā biǎo 。tā bèi chū bǎn 。tā shì jī yū 22000 fèn wèn juàn fā sòng dào qián zhě zài 24 suǒ ​​ dà xué cān jiā ,tā sì hū biǎo míng xǔ duō guò qù de dān xīn shì háo wú gēn jù de yán jiū shēng 。
chuò xué lǜ bèi rèn wéi shì 31%,zài dà duō shù qíng kuàng xià chuò xué ,ér méi yǒu wán chéng bó shì xué wèi de yāo qiú ,fù yǒu chéng xiào de gōng zuò 。tā men bù jǐn zuò hǎo cái zhèng ,dàn shì ,gēn jù gāi bào gào ,dōu yuǎn yuǎn dī yū nèi xiē shuí qù wán chéng zì jǐ de bó shì xué wèi de shōu rù shuǐ píng 。
shàng zhōu tǎo lùn yán jiū ,tǎ kè bó shì biǎo shì ,gāi xiàng mù kāi shǐ yīn wéi jīng cháng tōng guò yán jiū shēng xué yuàn hé guǎn lǐ yuán xià jiàng bó shì kè chéng de yī xiē rén de gè rén néng lì de jìng zhēng chéng dù de yāo qiú biǎo shì guān zhù 。bó shì shuǐ píng de mó sǔn yě bèi rèn wéi shì yī zhǒng zhēn guì de jiào shī shí jiān ,jiù yǐ jīng bèi yòng lái néng lì de dà xué zī yuán liú shī làng fèi 。yǒu xiē rén biǎo shì ,xùn liàn yǒu sù de zhuān jiā hé gāo xiào jiào shī duǎn quē kě yǐ tōng guò jiàng dī shuō fú chuò xué fǎn huí dào bì yè xué xiào wán chéng bó shì kàn lái
“wǒ men de yán jiū jiē guǒ ”tǎ kè bó shì zǒng jié :“bù zhī chí zhè xiē yì jiàn 。”
1。quē fá dòng lì shì chuò xué de zhǔ yào lǐ yóu 。
2。dà duō shù chuò xué le yuǎn zài qí bó shì kè chéng ,shì yǔ tā men de néng lì huò tā men de zhuān yè shuǐ píng xiāng yī zhì 。
3。zuì chuò xué xiàn zài cóng shì de gōng zuò yǔ tā men de jiào yù hé dòng jī xiāng yī zhì 。
jìn 75%,chuò xué de shòu fǎng zhě biǎo shì tā men de jué dìng yě méi yǒu xué shù de yuán yīn ,dàn tí dào xué shù yuán yīn yǐn wèi néng tōng guò zī gé kǎo shì ,wèi wán chéng de yán jiū hé tōng guò yǔ yán kǎo shì de shī bài 。zài fēi wán chéng zì jǐ de bó shì kè chéng ,quē ​​ fá zī jīn de qíng kuàng xià ,chuò xué de yī gè zuì zhòng yào de gè rén yuán yīn ,biāo míng le 19%。
zuò wéi chuò xué rú hé hǎo zuò de zhǐ shì ,tú biǎo xiǎn shì ,2%,zài rén wén lǐng qǔ 20,000 yuán ,ér méi yǒu “bó shì ”yǔ yī gè tóng yàng bèi jǐng de měi nián dá dào zhè gè shù zì 。bó shì de zhào 78%,duì 50% de chuò xué shuǐ píng zài 7500 měi yuán zhì 15000 měi yuán 。zhè yě kě néng shì yī gè jì xiàng ,réng rán luò hòu yū qí tā lǐng yù de xué kē lǐng yù ,qí zhōng bó shì de wǎng wǎng shàng shēng dào zuì gāo de xīn shuǐ ,zuì gāo xīn jīn de shì shí 。
zhì yū xiào yuán chuò xué de kě néng xìng ,qián jǐng shì mèn mèn bù lè 。zhǔ yào de tiáo jiàn ,zhè jiāng yǒu zhì shǎo 25% de chuò xué ,tā kě néng kǎo lǜ fǎn huí yán jiū shēng yuàn wéi zhǔn jiāng ,yǐ bǎo zhèng tā men jiāng bǎo liú qí mù qián de shōu rù hé zài mǒu xiē qíng kuàng xià ,tā men mù qián de gōng zuò shuǐ píng 。

Vocabulary
1. dropout 辍学者,中途退学
2. well-rounded 全面的
3. attrition 缩/减员,磨损
4. drain 枯竭
5. bracket 一类人,(尤指按收入分类的)阶层
6. lagging behind other fields 落后于其它领域
7. glum 阴郁的

Mandarin Advanced Course – Holmes’ Knowledge

Mandarin Advanced Course – Holmes’ Knowledge

他的無知,只要他的知識顯著。當代文學,哲學和政治,他似乎知道旁邊沒有什麼。當我引用托馬斯·卡萊爾,他詢問,在naivest的方式,他可能會和他做了什麼。我吃驚的是達到了高潮,然而,當我偶然發現他是哥白尼的理論和太陽系的組成無知。
霍姆斯說,“你似乎感到驚訝,”微笑在我的表達。 “現在,我知道它,我會盡我所能去忘記它。你看到,我認為,一個人的大腦原本像1小空閣樓是,和你來囤積這類家具,任你選擇:傻瓜需要在所有的每樣材,他來自各地,這樣的知識而可能是有用的,他被排擠,或者在最好的混亂與很多其他的事情,讓他有困難,在鋪設後,他的手。這是一個錯誤的想法的小房間,有彈性的牆壁,可以脹大到任何程度。依靠它,不過當每增加知識,你忘了的東西,你知道前一段時間。這是最重要的,因此,沒有無用的事實肘擊有用的。“
“但是,太陽系! “我抗議。
“見鬼,這是我嗎?”他不耐煩地打斷。
一天早晨,我從桌上拿起一本雜誌,並試圖消磨時間,而我的同伴嚼著默默地在祝酒辭。文章的標題在鉛筆標記,我很自然地開始運行,通過我的眼睛。
有些雄心勃勃的標題是“生命之書”,它試圖表明一個細心的人可能多少準確和系統檢查所有在他的方式來學習。我認為這是我作為一個顯著的混合物的精明和荒謬。推理接近和激烈,但扣我似乎是牽強和誇張。作家聲稱一時的表達,肌肉抽搐或瞄了一眼眼,捉摸一個人的內心深處的思想。欺騙,據他介紹,在訓練觀察和分析的情況下是不可能的。他的結論是萬無一失這麼多的歐幾里得的命題。如此驚人的,他的結果出現的門外漢,直到他們了解到他曾在他們抵達的進程,他們可能會考慮他作為一個巫師。
“從一滴水,”作家說,“一個邏輯學家可以推斷出一個大西洋的可能性。因此,所有的生命是一個偉大的鏈的性質,這是眾所周知的,每當我們顯示它的一個環節。所有其他藝術一樣,科學的推導和分析是一個可以通過長期和病人的研究中獲得的,也不是長,足以使任何凡人達到最高盡可能完美的生活。 “
這一理論巧妙的書面我不能接受,直到一個合理的證據繼承它。

tā de wú zhī ,zhǐ yào tā de zhī shí xiǎn zhù 。dāng dài wén xué ,zhé xué hé zhèng zhì ,tā sì hū zhī dào páng biān méi yǒu shí me 。dāng wǒ yǐn yòng tuō mǎ sī · kǎ lái ěr ,tā xún wèn ,zài naivest de fāng shì ,tā kě néng huì hé tā zuò le shí me 。wǒ chī jīng de shì dá dào le gāo cháo ,rán ér ,dāng wǒ ǒu rán fā xiàn tā shì gē bái ní de lǐ lùn hé tài yáng xì de zǔ chéng wú zhī 。
huò mǔ sī shuō ,“nǐ sì hū gǎn dào jīng yà ,”wēi xiào zài wǒ de biǎo dá 。 “xiàn zài ,wǒ zhī dào tā ,wǒ huì jìn wǒ suǒ néng qù wàng jì tā 。nǐ kàn dào ,wǒ rèn wéi ,yī gè rén de dà nǎo yuán běn xiàng 1 xiǎo kōng gé lóu shì ,hé nǐ lái dùn jī zhè lèi jiā jù ,rèn nǐ xuǎn zé : shǎ guā xū yào zài suǒ yǒu de měi yàng cái ,tā lái zì gě dì ,zhè yàng de zhī shí ér kě néng shì yǒu yòng de ,tā bèi pái jǐ ,huò zhě zài zuì hǎo de hùn luàn yǔ hěn duō qí tā de shì qíng ,ràng tā yǒu kùn nán ,zài pù shè hòu ,tā de shǒu 。zhè shì yī gè cuò wù de xiǎng fǎ de xiǎo fáng jiān ,yǒu tán xìng de qiáng bì ,kě yǐ zhàng dà dào rèn hé chéng dù 。yī kào tā ,bù guò dāng měi zēng jiā zhī shí ,nǐ wàng le de dōng xī ,nǐ zhī dào qián yī duàn shí jiān 。zhè shì zuì zhòng yào de ,yīn cǐ ,méi yǒu wú yòng de shì shí zhǒu jī yǒu yòng de 。“
“dàn shì ,tài yáng xì ! “wǒ kàng yì 。
“jiàn guǐ ,zhè shì wǒ mɑ ?”tā bù nài fán dì dǎ duàn 。
yì tiān zǎo chén ,wǒ cóng zhuō shàng ná qǐ yī běn zá zhì ,bìng shì tú xiāo mó shí jiān ,ér wǒ de tóng bàn jiáo zhù mò mò dì zài zhù jiǔ cí 。wén zhāng de biāo tí zài qiān bǐ biāo jì ,wǒ hěn zì rán dì kāi shǐ yùn xíng ,tōng guò wǒ de yǎn jīng 。
yǒu xiē xióng xīn bó bó de biāo tí shì “shēng mìng zhī shū ”,tā shì tú biǎo míng yī gè xì xīn de rén kě néng duō shǎo zhǔn què hé xì tǒng jiǎn zhā suǒ yǒu zài tā de fāng shì lái xué xí 。wǒ rèn wéi zhè shì wǒ zuò wéi yī gè xiǎn zhù de hùn hé wù de jīng míng hé huāng miù 。tuī lǐ jiē jìn hé jī liè ,dàn kòu wǒ sì hū shì qiān qiáng hé kuā zhāng 。zuò jiā shēng chēng yī shí de biǎo dá ,jī ròu chōu chù huò miáo le yī yǎn yǎn ,zhuō mō yī gè rén de nèi xīn shēn chù de sī xiǎng 。qī piàn ,jù tā jiè shào ,zài xùn liàn guān chá hé fēn xī de qíng kuàng xià shì bù kě néng de 。tā de jié lùn shì wàn wú yī shī zhè me duō de ōu jǐ lǐ de de mìng tí 。rú cǐ jīng rén de ,tā de jiē guǒ chū xiàn de mén wài hàn ,zhí dào tā men liǎo jiě dào tā zēng zài tā men dǐ dá de jìn chéng ,tā men kě néng huì kǎo lǜ tā zuò wéi yī gè wū shī 。
“cóng yī dī shuǐ ,”zuò jiā shuō ,“yī gè luó jí xué jiā kě yǐ tuī duàn chū yī gè dà xī yáng de kě néng xìng 。yīn cǐ ,suǒ yǒu de shēng mìng shì yī gè wěi dà de liàn de xìng zhì ,zhè shì zhòng suǒ zhōu zhī de ,měi dāng wǒ men xiǎn shì tā de yī gè huán jié 。suǒ yǒu qí tā yì shù yī yàng ,kē xué de tuī dǎo hé fēn xī shì yī gè kě yǐ tōng guò cháng qī hé bìng rén de yán jiū zhōng huò de de ,yě bú shì cháng ,zú yǐ shǐ rèn hé fán rén dá dào zuì gāo jìn kě néng wán měi de shēng huó 。 “
zhè yī lǐ lùn qiǎo miào de shū miàn wǒ bù néng jiē shòu ,zhí dào yī gè hé lǐ de zhèng jù jì chéng tā 。

His ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar system.
“You appear to be astonished, ” Holmes said, smiling at my expression. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it. You see, I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose: A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has difficulty in laying his hand upon it. It is a mistake to think that the little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it, there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you know before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”
“But the Solar System! ” I protested.
“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently.
One morning, I picked up a magazine from the table and attempted to while away the time with it, while my companion munched silently at his toast. One of the articles had a pencil mark at the heading, and I naturally began to run my eye through it.
Its somewhat ambitious title was “The Book of Life, ” and it attempted to show how much an observant man might learn by an accurate and systematic examination of all that came in his way. It struck me as being a remarkable mixture of shrewdness and of absurdity. The reasoning was close and intense, but the deduction appeared to me to be far-fetched and exaggerated. The writer claimed by a momentary expression, a twitch of a muscle or a glance of an eye, to fathom a man’s inmost thought. Deceit, according to him, was impossibility in the case of one trained to observation and analysis. His conclusions were as infallible as so many propositions of Euclid. So startling would his results appear to the uninitiated that until they learned the processes by which he had arrived at them they might well consider him as a necromancer.
“From a drop of water, ”said the writer, “a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic. So all life is a great chain, the nature of which is known whenever we are shown a single link of it. Like all other arts, the science of Deduction and Analysis is one which can be acquired by long and patient study, nor is life long enough to allow any mortal to attain the highest possible perfection in it. ”
This smartly written piece of theory I could not accept until a succession of evidences justified it.

Vocabulary
1. Thomas Carlyle 托马斯•卡莱尔 1795-1881美国作家、历史家、哲学家
2. jumble (up) 搞乱,使混乱
3. lay hand on (upon) sth. 抓住,找到
4. at best 最好的情况下
5. elbow out (off) 用胳膊肘挤出,推出
6. deuce = devil
what the deuce is it to me? 这里表示福尔摩斯的厌恶心理。义:这倒霉的词儿与我有什么关系?
7. while away the time 消磨/打发时间
8. shrewdness 机敏,敏锐,犀利
9. far-fetched 牵强附会,不自然
10. fathom 看穿/透,推测,探索
11. infallible 一贯正确
12. uninitiated 对某事无知的
13. Euclid 欧几里德(古希腊数学家)
14. necromancer 巫师

Mandarin Advanced Level – The Development of Cities

Mandarin Advanced Level – The Development of Cities

大眾運輸修訂的美國城市的社會和經濟結構在三個基本方面。它催化的物理擴展,整理出人民和土地的用途,它加快了城市生活的固有的不穩定性。通過開放的廣大地區無人居住的土地,擴建住宅,公共馬車,馬鐵路,通勤列車,電動車拉解決地區向外的兩到四倍的遙遠形式的城市中心,比他們在現代的時代。例如,在1850年,波士頓的邊界奠定還不到兩英里的老商業區;世紀之交的半徑擴至10英里。現在,這些人能買得起,它可以住遠離老城區中心,仍然有通勤工作,購物和娛樂。周圍的土地,幾乎每一個主要城市外圍的新的輔助引發爆炸房地產開發和推動,我們現在知道作為城市擴張。例如,1890年和1920年間,約有25萬新住宅地段被記錄在芝加哥的邊界,其中大部分位於邊遠地區。在同一時期,另一個城外的限制,但在首都圈了550,000個。急於採取利用通勤的可能性,房地產開發商增加了80萬潛在的芝加哥地區的建築地盤就只有34歲 – 可以安置很多五,六萬人。
當然,許多人從來沒有被佔領,總是有一個細分的巨額盈餘,但空置,芝加哥和其他城市周圍的土地。這些暴行,強調有關大眾運輸的增長:城市擴張基本上是無計劃的住宅擴展功能。它是由成千上萬的小投資者協調土地利用或對未來的土地使用者支付很少理會。誰購買,並準備作住宅用途的土地,特別是土地附近或以外的城市公交線路和中產階層的居民,預計的邊界,這樣做是創造需求,盡可能作出回應。芝加哥是這個過程中的一個最好的例子。房地產細分進行比人口增長快。

dà zhòng yùn shū xiū dìng de měi guó chéng shì de shè huì hé jīng jì jié gòu zài sān gè jī běn fāng miàn 。tā cuī huà de wù lǐ kuò zhǎn ,zhěng lǐ chū rén mín hé tǔ dì de yòng tú ,tā jiā kuài le chéng shì shēng huó de gù yǒu de bù wěn dìng xìng 。tōng guò kāi fàng de guǎng dà dì qū wú rén jū zhù de tǔ dì ,kuò jiàn zhù zhái ,gōng gòng mǎ chē ,mǎ tiě lù ,tōng qín liè chē ,diàn dòng chē lā jiě jué dì qū xiàng wài de liǎng dào sì bèi de yáo yuǎn xíng shì de chéng shì zhōng xīn ,bǐ tā men zài xiàn dài de shí dài 。lì rú ,zài 1850 nián ,bō shì dùn de biān jiè diàn dìng hái bú dào liǎng yīng lǐ de lǎo shāng yè qū ; shì jì zhī jiāo de bàn jìng kuò zhì 10 yīng lǐ 。xiàn zài ,zhè xiē rén néng mǎi de qǐ ,tā kě yǐ zhù yuǎn lí lǎo chéng qū zhōng xīn ,réng rán yǒu tōng qín gōng zuò ,gòu wù hé yú lè 。zhōu wéi de tǔ dì ,jī hū měi yī gè zhǔ yào chéng shì wài wéi de xīn de fǔ zhù yǐn fā bào zhà fáng dì chǎn kāi fā hé tuī dòng ,wǒ men xiàn zài zhī dào zuò wéi chéng shì kuò zhāng 。lì rú ,1890 nián hé 1920 nián jiān ,yuē yǒu 25 wàn xīn zhù zhái dì duàn bèi jì lù zài zhī jiā gē de biān jiè ,qí zhōng dà bù fèn wèi yū biān yuǎn dì qū 。zài tóng yī shí qī ,lìng yī gè chéng wài de xiàn zhì ,dàn zài shǒu dū quān le 550,000 gè 。jí yū cǎi qǔ lì yòng tōng qín de kě néng xìng ,fáng dì chǎn kāi fā shāng zēng jiā le 80 wàn qián zài de zhī jiā gē dì qū de jiàn zhù dì pán jiù zhǐ yǒu 34 suì – kě yǐ ān zhì hěn duō wǔ ,liù wàn rén 。
dāng rán ,xǔ duō rén cóng lái méi yǒu bèi zhàn lǐng ,zǒng shì yǒu yī gè xì fēn de jù é yíng yú ,dàn kōng zhì ,zhī jiā gē hé qí tā chéng shì zhōu wéi de tǔ dì 。zhè xiē bào xíng ,qiáng diào yǒu guān dà zhòng yùn shū de zēng zhǎng : chéng shì kuò zhāng jī běn shàng shì wú jì huá de zhù zhái kuò zhǎn gōng néng 。tā shì yóu chéng qiān shàng wàn de xiǎo tóu zī zhě xié diào tǔ dì lì yòng huò duì wèi lái de tǔ dì shǐ yòng zhě zhī fù hěn shǎo lǐ huì 。shuí gòu mǎi ,bìng zhǔn bèi zuò zhù zhái yòng tú de tǔ dì ,tè bié shì tǔ dì fù jìn huò yǐ wài de chéng shì gōng jiāo xiàn lù hé zhōng chǎn jiē céng de jū mín ,yù jì de biān jiè ,zhè yàng zuò shì chuàng zào xū qiú ,jìn kě néng zuò chū huí yìng 。zhī jiā gē shì zhè gè guò chéng zhōng de yī gè zuì hǎo de lì zi 。fáng dì chǎn xì fēn jìn xíng bǐ rén kǒu zēng zhǎng kuài 。

Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways. It catalyzed physical expansion, it sorted out people and land uses, and it accelerated the inherent instability of urban life. By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four times more distant form city centers than they were in the premodern era. In 1850, for example, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old business district; by the turn of the century the radius extended ten miles. Now those who could afford it could live far removed from the old city center and still commute there for work, shopping, and entertainment. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas. Over the same period, another 550,000 were plotted outside the city limits but within the metropolitan area. Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting, real estate developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the Chicago region in just thirty years – lots that could have housed five to six million people.
Of course, many were never occupied; there was always a huge surplus of subdivided, but vacant, land around Chicago and other cities. These excesses underscore a feature of residential expansion related to the growth of mass transportation: urban sprawl was essentially unplanned. It was carried out by thousands of small investors who paid little heed to coordinated land use or to future land users. Those who purchased and prepared land for residential purposes, particularly land near or outside city borders where transit lines and middle-class inhabitants were anticipated, did so to create demand as much as to respond to it. Chicago is a prime example of this process. Real estate subdivision there proceeded much faster than population growth.

Vocabulary
1. revise gǎi biàn 改变
2. fabric jié gòu 结构
3. catalyze cuī huà ,jiā sù 催化,加速
4. sort out bǎ …… fēn mén bié lèi ,jiǎn xuǎn 把……分门别类,拣选
5. omnibus gōng gòng qì chē /mǎ chē 公共汽车/马车
6. trolley ( měi ) yǒu guǐ diàn chē ,( yīng ) wú guǐ diàn chē (美)有轨电车,(英)无轨电车
7. periphery zhōu wéi ,biān yuán 周围,边缘
8. sprawl jiàn zhù wù wú jì huà yán shēn ,màn yán ,sì miàn bā fāng sàn kāi 建筑物无计划延伸,蔓延,四面八方散开
9. lot xiǎo piàn tǔ dì 小片土地
10. underscore qiáng diào ,zài xià miàn huá héng xiàn 强调,在下面划横线
11. transit lines yùn shū xiàn lù 运输线路
12. subdivision ( chū shòu de ) xiǎo kuài tǔ dì ,zài huà fēn xiǎo qū (出售的)小块土地,再划分小区