mandarin lesson hong kong 2- Greetings

Mandarin Lesson – Greetings are indispensable in our lives. We use them many times every day to make contact with other people, recognize their presence, and show friendliness.

It is important to remember that the expressions used for greeting people usually do not carry any literal meanings. For example, “what’s up?” does not really mean, “What is up?” It is only an expression of greetings. Also, remember that a positive response to greetings is usually expected, even if it is not totally true. For instance, if someone greets you by saying, “How are you?” “Fine.” Is the most appropriate response—even if you are feeling bad.

Greetings vary in their level of formality. Using a greeting that is too formal or too casual for a particular situation is a social error which may be offensive or embarrassing.

There are at least five different styles in English: frozen, formal, consultative, casual, and intimate. The style which is appropriate for a situation depends on the age and the relationship of the people speaking as well as where they are and what they are talking about.

Frozen style is seldom used in normal speaking situation. It is a classic, literary, almost ceremonial style reserved for the most formal occasions, such as declamatory speeches to large audiences. Language in this style is carefully edited and rehearsed. It is used for one-way communication, and the listeners remain social strangers to the speaker.

Formal style is sometimes used in speaking (such as in university lectures and formal introductions), but it is most commonly used in written form-in text and reference books, reports, and business letters. Formal utterances are usually either formulaic (established words and structures are used repeatedly with little edited). Although it is used for communicating information, formal style typically does not allow immediate feedback from listeners. It is a socially detached style for addressing strangers or large groups.

Intimate style is reserved for members of a small closely related group (such as family or club) or pair (such as a husband and wife, mother and child, or boyfriend and girlfriend). It joins personalities and reflects a cozy relationship. Intimate utterances are abbreviated and minimal, with much of the message left unsaid but understood since the conversational partners are so close. “Insider words,” whose special meanings only the partners understand, are common in intimate style, as are titles which show affection, such as dear, sweetheart,  or honey.

Formal style is typically used when people first meet. With the passage of time, as a friendly relationship develops, the style used will become casual. Be careful, however, not to shift styles too quickly. Becoming friendly or casual too soon can be offensive.   Greetings can consist of a statement and/or a question. Used alone, the question (such as how are you?”) seems rather abrupt. Generally, the question comes only after a greetings statement (such as, “Hello.”)

zài wǒ men de shēng huó zhōng wèn hòu shì quē shǎo de
在 我 们   生 活   问  是  缺   
wǒ men shǐ yòng tā men měi tiān duō cì tā rén jiē chù ,
我 们 使  用 它 们 每  天 多 次 他 人 接 触 ,
rèn shi dào tā men de cún zài ,bìng biǎo shì yǒu hǎo
认  到 它 们  存 在 , 并  表 示 友  。
  zhòng yào de shì yào jì zhù ,wèn hòu de rén suǒ shǐ yòng
   是  记 住 ,问   人 所 使  用
de tōng cháng jìn xíng rèn hé wén zì de hán yì 。lì
  常  进    何 文 字  义 。例
rú ,“zěn me le ?”bìng méi yǒu zhēn zhèng de shì ,“zhè
如 ,“怎  ?” 并  有  真    是 ,“
shì shén me ?”zhè zhǐ shì zhǒng biǎo dá wèn hòu 。cǐ wài
是    ?”  是     表 达 问  。此 外
,jì de wèn hòu tōng cháng yù de jī jí xiǎng yìng ,jí shǐ shì
,记 问     常 预 积 极  响   ,即 使 是
wán quán zhèng què 。jǔ lì lái shuō ,rú guǒ yǒu rén shuō
完  全   确 。举 例 来   ,如 果 有 人   :
“nǐ zěn me yàng ?”“hěn hǎo 。”shì zuì shì de huí yìng
“你 怎  样 ?”“很  。”是 最    回 
— jí shǐ nǐ shì gǎn jué hǎo
— 即 使 你 是 感    。
  zài xíng shì shàng de shuǐ píng xiāng tóng de wèn
在  形 式    水  平      
hòu 。shǐ yòng tè dìng qíng kuàng xià shì guò zhèng shì huò
 。使  用 特 定  情  况 下 是     式 或
guò suí yì de wèn hòu shì zhǒng shè huì de cuò wù
  随 意 问   是    社   错 误
néng huì mào fàn huò gān gà 。
   犯 或 尴 尬 。
  yǒu zhì shǎo tóng fēng zài yīng zhōng : dòng
有 至   五    风  在  英    : 冻
jié zhèng guī ,zī xún ,xiū xián ,qīn mì 。zhè shì shì
 ,  规 ,咨 询 ,休  闲 ,  密 。 是  
qíng kuàng de yàng shì qǔ jué nián líng de rén lái shuō ,yǐ
情  况  样 式 取 决    龄  人 来   ,以
jí tā men tā men zài tán lùn shén me guān
及 他 们  他 们 在 谈     关 
 zài zhèng cháng de yán qíng kuàng , lěng dòng de fēng
在    常  言  情  况 ,  冷  冻  风
shì hěn shǎo shǐ yòng 。zhè shì zuì zhèng shì de chǎng
是 很   使  用 。 是 最   式    
,rú liàng guān zhòng kāng kǎi jī áng de yán ,bǎo liú jīng
,如      众  慷 慨 激 昂  言 ,保 留  经
diǎn ,wén xué ,yí shì de fēng 。zài zhè zhǒng fēng
典 ,文 学 , 仪 式  风  。在     风 
de yán shì jīng guò jīng xīn biān pái liàn 。tā shì
言 是  经   精 心  编    练 。它 是
yòng lái wéi dān xiàng gōu tōng de ,duì zhe yáng shēng de
用 来    向 沟    ,对   扬   器
shè huì mò shēng rén 。
社  陌  生 人 。
  zhèng shì fēng shì yǒu shí bèi yòng lái zài shuō huà (
 式  风  是 有 时   用 来 在   话 (
rú zài xué yǎn jiǎng ,bìng zhèng shì jiè shào ),dàn tā shì
如 在  学 演  讲 , 并   式 介  绍 ),但 它 是
zuì cháng yòng de shū miàn xíng shì ,zài wén běn cān kǎo shū
最  常  用  书  面  形 式 ,在 文 本   考 书
jí ,bào gào ,shāng yè xìn hán 。zhèng shì de yán lùn tōng cháng
籍 ,报  , 商 业  函 。  式  言     常
shì gōng shì huà ( jì dìng de jié gòu fǎn fù shǐ yòng
是  公 式  ( 既 定   构  复 使  用
xiǎo biān )。zhèng shì fēng ,suī rán tā shì yòng jiāo
小  编  )。  式  风  ,虽 然 它 是  用  交
liú xìn xī ,tōng cháng huì ràng tīng zhòng jí shí fǎn kuì
流  息 ,   常    让  听  众 即 时  馈


qīn de fēng shì bǎo liú qiè xiāng guān de xiǎo
 密  风  是 保 留      关  小
tuán ( rú jiā tíng huò jù bù ) huò duì ( rú zhàng
团  ( 如   庭 或 俱 部 ) 或  对 ( 如  丈 
,mǔ qīn hái zi ,huò nán péng yǒu péng yǒu
,母   孩  ,或 男  朋 友    朋 友
de chéng yuán 。tā jiā rù le xìng ,fǎn yìng le shū
 成   。它 加 入  性 ,  映 
shì de guān qīn de yán lùn zuì xiǎo de suō xiě ,xiāo
  关  密 言   最  小   写 , 消
méi shuō ,dàn liǎo jiě ,yīn wèi duì huà huǒ bàn shì rú
   ,但    ,因  对 话  伴 是 如
cǐ jiē jìn 。 “nèi de huà ”,tè shū de hán zhǐ yǒu
此 接 近 。 “ 幕 话 ”, 特 殊   义  有
zuò huǒ bàn de jiě ,shì cháng jiàn de qīn de fēng
  伴  ,是  常    密  风 
,xiù ēn ài de biāo tí ,rú : qīn ài de ,xīn shàng rén ,huò tián
,秀 恩 爱  标 题 ,如 :  爱 ,心   人 ,或  甜
xīn ,。
心 ,。
  tōng cháng yòng zhèng shì wén dāng rén men dì
  常  用    式 文  人 们 第
jiàn miàn 。suí zhe shí jiān de tuī yí ,zuò wéi yǒu hǎo guān
  面 。随  时    推 移 ,  友   关
de zhǎn ,shǐ yòng de yàng shì jiāng chéng wéi xiū xián
 展 ,使  用  样 式    成  休  闲
guò yào xiǎo xīn ,yào zhuǎn biàn fēng tài kuài 。
 ,  小 心 ,     变  风  太  快 。
chéng wéi yǒu hǎo huò xiū xián tài kuài ,néng huì mào fàn
成  友  或 休  闲 太  快 ,    犯


  wèn hòu yǐ zǔ chéng shēng míng /huò wèn
问   以 组  成     明  /或 
tí 。de wèn tí ( rú nǐ zěn me yàng ?“) dān dú shǐ yòng ,yě xiǎn
题 。 问 题 ( 如 你 怎  样 ?“)  独 使  用 ,也 显
de shí fēn bān lái shuō ,wèn tí lái le hòu ,cái wèn
十  突  来   ,问 题 来  后 ,才 问
hòu shēng míng ( rú “nǐ hǎo 。”)
    明 ( 如 “你  。”)

 


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