6 speeding skills to improve English communication skills

communication skills

You may have memorized endless lists of vocabulary, you may know all the grammar needed to hold any conversation and still find yourself at a loss when wanting to express yourself.

你可能已经记住了无穷无尽的词汇表,你可能知道所有的用来进行任何对话的语法,但仍然在表达时感到困惑。

In this article, I would like to give you a few tips to help overcome the difficulties you might be experiencing, using some of the simplest methods to improve your English communication skills.

在这篇文章中,我想给你一些建议,帮助你克服你可能遇到的困难,用一些最简单的方法来提高你的英语沟通能力。

1. Slow Down Your Speaking Speed

1.放慢你的说话速度

You might be an eloquent speaker when it comes to your mother tongue, but expecting the same standards from yourself when speaking in a foreign language may not be very realistic.

谈到母语时,你可能是一个雄辩的演说家,但用外语讲话时,期望自己达到同样的标准可能不太现实。

Especially, if you’re at the early stages of learning. Learners are often told not to worry about the mistakes they’re making, however, it is easy to understand why you would like to make a good impression on your audience.

特别是,如果你处于学习的早期阶段。学习者经常被告知不要担心他们犯的错误。然而,你很容易理解为什么你想给听众留下好印象。

To overcome this difficulty, you may try slowing down your speaking speed.

为了克服这个困难,你可以试着放慢语速。

Nobody will hold it against you if you speak more slowly and clearly. Great speakers do the same to get their message across. Selecting your words carefully may also be seen as a sign of respect towards your audience. It shows that you want to give them the best possible answer.

如果你说得慢一点,没有人会反对你的。伟大的演说家也会这样做以传达他们的信息。谨慎发言也可以被看作是对听众的尊敬。这表明你想给他们最好的答案。

2. Give Yourself Time to Think

2.给你自己一些时间去思考

You may be worried that the people you’re talking to are impatient and would like you to say what you want as quickly as possible.

你可能担心与你交谈的人不耐烦,希望你尽快说出你想要的。

First of all, it may not be true – people often prefer a well-thought-out answer to a rushed one.So just relax.

首先,这可能不是真的——人们往往喜欢深思熟虑的回答。所以放松一下。

Another practical thing you can do is equipping yourself with fixed phrases you can use when remaining silent doesn’t seem to be an option. Here’s an example:

你可以做的另一个实际的事情是给自己配备一些固定短语,当你保持沉默似乎不是一个好的选择时,你可以使用。下面举个例子:

Why is there so much violence on TV? That’s a good question. Let me think for a moment, I haven’t really thought about it before. Well, I suppose…

为什么电视上有这么多暴力镜头?这是个好问题。让我想一想,我以前没有想过这个问题。嗯,我想…

Here the speaker gains considerable amount of time to reflect just by repeating the question and adding a few sentences. If you do the same, you’ll sound more fluent and won’t feel the pressure of having to say something before you’re ready.

在这里,演讲者可以通过重复提问和添加一些句子来获得大量的时间来思考。如果你做同样的事情,你会说得更流利,也不会感到在你准备好之前要说点什么的压力。

Fixed or set phrases are phrases whose words are usually fixed in a certain order. They can be verb patterns, idioms, collocations – basically anything we always say in one particular way. For example,

固定词组或组合词组是通常按一定顺序固定的短语。它们可以是动词模式,习语,搭配——基本上我们总是用一种特定的方式表达。例如:

during the day

白天

in the meantime

同时

It’s been a long time since

这是很久以前的事了

Sorry to bother/trouble you, but…

很抱歉打扰你,但是…

Would you mind if…?

如果……你介意吗?

Oh, come on!

哦,来吧!

I’m just kidding!

我只是开玩笑!

For what it’s worth,…

这是一个大错误,因为他们可能会用它的价值是,…

To be right/wrong about

正确的是/错误的是

Tit for tat/an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth

以牙还牙,以眼还眼

3. Learn Sentences, Not Only Words

3.学习句子,而不只是词语

In a way, this will take the pressure off too. When you learn a new word, try to memorize a couple of sentences that contain it.

在某种程度上,这也将消除压力。当你学习一个新单词时,试着记住包含它的几个句子。

There might come a time when you can use one particular sentence with little, or no alteration at all. Unfortunately, many people learn words by heart, but have no idea how to use them in a sentence.

可能会有一段时间,你可以用特定不变的一句话,不幸的是,许多人背单词,但不知道如何在句子中使用它们。

It will be such a relief not having to worry about whether the sentence is correct grammatically or not. Let’s look at an example:

你不必担心句子的语法正确与否。让我们看一个例子:

to appreciate = to recognize the value of something/somebody

欣赏=承认某事/人的价值

I think it’s necessary to feel appreciated in a relationship/ at work.

我认为有必要在感情或工作中感受到被感激。

I appreciate all your hard work.

我感谢你的辛勤工作。

Isn’t it much more useful to memorize ’appreciate’ this way?

用这种方式记住“感激”不是更有用吗?

4. Learn to Listen

4.学会聆听

When speaking in a foreign language, you might be so focused on what you are saying and whether it’s correct or not, that you forget to listen to what others are saying.

当你用外语讲话时,你可能会把注意力放在你说的话上,或者说对与错,这样你就忘了听别人说什么。

This is a big mistake as they might be using the exact words or grammar you’ll be needing later on. So pay attention to what’s being said around you, it’s your most important resource at the time of speaking to someone.

到你以后将需要的确切的单词或语法。所以,注意你周围所说的话,这是你和某人说话时最重要的资源。

5. Practise Your Interrogatives

5. 练习你的疑问句

We also need to keep in mind the fact that communication is a two-way process. Not only does it make you seem uninterested – even rude – if you don’t ask questions, you might also end up being the one who has to do all the talking. So, when you’ve run out of ideas about what to say next, remember: others might have something to add.

我们还需要记住这样的事实,沟通是一个双向过程。如果你不问问题,它不仅让你看起来对谈话不感兴趣–甚至是粗鲁的–你也可能最终被终止做所有的谈话。所以,当你对下一步不知道该怎么说的时候,记住:其他人可能会补充一些东西。

What are your views on that?

你对此有何看法?

How about you? What do you think?

你呢?您是怎么想的?

Why do you think there’s so much violence on TV?

你为什么认为电视上有这么多暴力镜头?

Questions like this will keep the conversation going and will show your interest in other people’s opinion. They will also give you time to relax a little and start enjoying yourself.

这样的问题会使谈话继续进行,也会显示出你对他人意见的兴趣。他们也会给你时间放松一下,开始享受你自己的时间。

Interrogatives can be quite tricky, so make sure you spend enough time learning the correct ways of asking questions.

疑问句是相当棘手的,所以确保你花足够的时间学习提问的正确方法。

6. Produce, Produce, Produce

6.产出,产出,再产出

As I said at the beginning of this article, you might know a lot about the language, but this is passive knowledge that must be activated somehow. Your aim is to be able to produce correct English; practice is undeniably the best way to learn and improve.

正如我在本文开头所说的,您可能对语言了解很多,但这是被动的知识,必须以某种方式激活。你的目标是能够掌握正确的英语;实践无疑是学习和提高的最好方法。

Writing is one way of producing language; it may help you get used to and reflect on the ways English operates, which, in turn, might prove to be useful when speaking.

写作是表达语言的一种方式,它可以帮助你习惯和反思英语的运作方式,而这反过来又可能在说话时被证明是有用的。

Speaking, on the other hand, is a much more spontaneous process and nothing prepares you for it better than actually doing it. So, find people you can practise with – either on Skype, or on language exchange sites, with the help of our native teachers – I have a feeling that it will be a great experience.

从另一方面说,这是一个更自发的过程,没有什么比实际做准备更好的了。所以,你可以在Skype找人练习,或者语言交流的网站,或在这里向我们外教老师寻求帮助,我有一种感觉,这将是一个伟大的经历。

I hope you will find these tips useful. Feel free to ask any questions if something is not clear. Remember how important it is to ask? We’re here to help you.

我希望你会发现这些秘诀有用。如果有不清楚的地方,可以随时提出任何问题。记住问问题有多重要?我们是来帮你的。

English lesson – There is no free lunch in the world

Why giving birth is so painful

giving birth

Backward Births

逆向生产

That infant head looks mighty large compared to that narrow birth canal. And to add to that, the baby comes out facing down and backwards, which means mothers can do little to assist the birth, or even to untangle the baby from the umbilical cord.

婴儿的头部相对于产道,看起来十分巨大。除此之外,婴儿是按照从头到脚通过产道的顺序,朝着下方出生的,这就意味着母亲在协助产程方面能尽到的协助力很小,甚至无法为婴儿解开缠绕在身的脐带。

According to evolutionary anthropologists, babies of the earliest humans had a 50-50 chance of coming out facing backwards. This was a result of humans learning to walk on two feet. As the pelvis became optimized for walking, the birth canal developed twists and turns that meant the baby had to rotate in order to keep the head and shoulders aligned with the widest part at all times.

根据进化人类学家的说法,最早期人类的婴儿出生时头部先通过产道的几率为50%,这种现象是人类学会用双足直立行走的结果。随着骨盆最优化发育以适应行走,产道中出现了曲折和转弯的部分,这意味着婴儿在通过产道时不得不旋转方向来保持头部和肩膀与产道最宽处相一致。

And then our brains got bigger, which meant more twists and turns and backwards-facing babies.

后来人类脑部体积变得越来越大,这就导致了更多的曲折、转弯和逆向生产。

Special Delivery

特殊的生产方式

Some of the earliest humans learned to compensate for the difficulty of giving birth by receiving assistance during childbirth, and that made a huge difference in terms of survival.

一部分最早期人类学会了通过在生产过程中寻求协助的方式来减小生产的困难,而这种做法在提高存活率方面做出了重大贡献。

Some anthropologists think there might be an evolutionary advantage to having someone help you give birth, and conjecture that human females who gave birth to backwards-facing babies, and females who had assistance because they felt particularly anxious about the birth ended up doing better than females who didn’t. After all, if problems arise during labor, having another person around can mean the difference between life and death.

一些人类学家认为有人协助生产可能是一种进化上的优势,并且设想那些逆向生产婴儿,以及由于对生产感到特别焦虑,从而获得协助的女性,最终比起没有协助的女性所产下的婴儿存活率更高。毕竟,假如产程中出现了问题,有他人在场可能意味着生与死的区别。

Some anthropologists think there might be an evolutionary advantage to having someone help you give birth, and conjecture that human females who gave birth to backwards-facing babies, and females who had assistance because they felt particularly anxious about the birth ended up doing better than females who didn’t. After all, if problems arise during labor, having another person around can mean the difference between life and death.

一些人类学家认为有人协助生产可能是一种进化上的优势,并且设想那些逆向生产婴儿,以及由于对生产感到特别焦虑,从而获得协助的女性,最终比起没有协助的女性所产下的婴儿存活率更高。毕竟,假如产程中出现了问题,有他人在场可能意味着生与死的区别。

Father Birthday Will Be A Thing Of The Past And Here’s Why

Why did i fail on losing weight

why did i fail on losing weight

Weight loss is still incredibly challenging for most people, as evidenced by the growing global obesity epidemic.

据证据表明全球肥胖现象正在日益蔓延,对于大部分人来说,减肥仍然是一项艰巨的挑战,。

According to the latest Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics, more than two in three US adults are considered overweight (defined as a body- mass index between 25 and 30), and 36.5% of US adults fall into the obese category (BMI greater than 30).

根据疾病控制和预防中心的最新数据统计,超过三分之二的美国成年人属于超重(身体质量指数在25到30之间),而36.5%的美国成人已经进入肥胖范畴(体质指数大于30)。

Many people also want to lose weight. According to a recent study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, approximately half of overweight and obese adults report that they are trying to lose weight. Which is why my patients often ask, “Why aren’t I losing weight?”

许多人也想减肥。《美国医学会杂志》最近的一项研究表明,大约一半的超重和肥胖人群说他们正在尽力减肥。那么我的病人们经常就会问:“为什么我没有减肥成功?”

There is no simple, universal answer to this question, but after nearly two decades of working with patients trying to lose weight, and with the help of two leaders in the field of nutrition and obesity medicine, I’ve put together this list of some of the most common behavioral and medical (Warning! Flu is around the world!)

reasons you might not be losing weight, even though you think you are doing everything right. I’ve also tried to include suggestions to get you on the right track to sustained weight loss.

这个问题并没有一个简单而通用的答案,但是经过对那些尽力在减肥的病人长达近二十年的研究,以及两位营养学和肥胖医学界领军人物的协助下,我列出了一些可能导致你减肥失败的最常见的行为和医药方面的因素,尽管你可能认为自己没做错什么。我还尽力为你提供了建议来帮你走上减肥成功之路。

You have calorie ’amnesia’

你有热量“失忆症”

This is one of the most common and easy-to-fix issues that I see in my practice: Put simply, people often eat more calories than they realize.

这是我在实践中看到的最常见的,也是最容易解决的问题之一:简单来说,人们通常摄入的热量要比他们意识到的要多。

You relax your diet too much on weekends

你在周末太过放纵饮食了

This is another very common issue that is a bit more challenging to fix, as weekends are generally much less structured and more social than weekdays. Three days (Friday, Saturday and Sunday) of more relaxed eating (and in many cases drinking) can easily erase four days of more focused effort.

这是另一个很常见的问题,但是有点儿难以解决。因为周末相比工作日,缺少结构体系,而更偏向社会化。三天(周五,周六和周日)的大吃大喝(在很多情况下)很容易就将你前四天努力的成果抹除掉了。

Your medication is working against you

药物对你没什么好处

Most physicians do not receive adequate training in obesity medicine and nutrition. Many may not be aware that the medications they prescribe may lead to weight gain or make weight loss more challenging.

在肥胖医学和营养学方面,大多数内科医生都没有接受足够的训练。他们中许多人可能还没意识到他们开的药物可能会导致体重增加,或者使减肥变得更难。

You eat too much of a good thing

你好东西吃太多了

It is true that recommendations concerning dietary fat have changed in the past decade, and nutrition science has found that unsaturated fat, including nuts, seeds, avocado and olive oil, plays an important role in a healthy diet.

确实,关于饮食中脂肪方面的建议在过去十年里已经发生了改变,营养科学表明,不饱和脂肪,包括坚果、种子、鳄梨和橄榄油,在健康饮食中起着重要作用。

However, you can easily eat too much healthy fat along with other healthy foods, including whole grains.

然而,你很容易就会在吃其他健康食物的同时摄入过多的健康脂肪,包括全谷物类食物。

Your body is resistant to insulin

你的身体对胰岛素有抵抗作用

This is an issue I often encounter with patients and one that my colleague Dr. Michael Rothkopf, president of the National Board of Physician Nutrition Specialists, confirms is an often overlooked reason for weight loss failure.

这是我在病人身上经常遇到的一个问题,而我的同事,全美营养医师专业委员会主席迈克尔·罗特科普夫博士也证实,这是一个经常被忽视的导致减肥失败的原因。

14 people lose weight to teach you how to get rid of fat

Gender gap between men and women is narrowing

Gender gap between men and women is narrowingMen outnumbered women by 32.66 million on the Chinese mainland by the end of 2017, according to data released by National Bureau of Statistics on Jan. 18.

据国家统计局1月18日公布的数据显示,到2017年底,中国大陆男性比女性人数多3266万。

Experts warn that the imbalanced sex ratio of 104.81 males for every 100 females (Do you know These 9 things are invented by female?)

may cause social problems, China News reported.

据《中国新闻》报道,专家警告称,男女性别比为104.81,这可能会造成社会问题。

The statistics show that the total population of the Chinese mainland was about 1.39 billion by the end of 2017, among which, the population of men stood at about 711.37 million, with the female population at 678.71 million. Men outnumber women by 32.66 million, down 930,000 compared with 2016.

统计数据显示,到2017年底,中国大陆总人口约13.9亿,其中男性人口约为71137万人,女性为67871万人。男性人口数量比女性多了3266万,与2016年相比,下降了93万。

The narrower gender gap is attributed to the comprehensive two-child policy implemented by the country since 2015, said Chen Jian, vice president of China Society of Social Reform.

中国经济体制改革研究会副会长陈剑表示,这两年男女人口差距的缩小,很重要的原因就是全面二孩政策。

Chen stressed that the phenomenon of men far outnumbering women may cause lots of social problems and influence social and economic development.

陈剑强调,男性人口远超女性人口会造成诸多社会问题,影响经济和社会的发展。

Li Jianxin, a professor at the Department of Sociology, Peking University, also noted that surplus of men, whose physiological needs cannot be normally met, may be a threat to the society, adding that as China is now stepping into an aging society, once the population of marriage age keeps rising, it will be a complex and difficult social security problem in the future.

北京大学社会学系教授李建新也指出,男性适婚人口过剩,他们的生理需求却又无法通过正常途径满足,可能会给社会带来威胁。他进一步指出,中国当前已步入老龄化社会,一旦未婚人群数量提升,未来将增加整个国家社会保障问题的复杂性,以及社会保障的难度。

In addition, Chinese women nowadays have more advantages in choosing their mates than men due to the gender gap, and they are inclined to choose someone better than themselves, making it harder to find a suitable marriage partner, Chen pointed out.

此外,陈剑还表示,由于性别差异,如今的中国女性择偶比男性更有优势,她们倾向于选择比自己更好的人,这使得要找到一个合适的男性变得更加困难。

Handsome men and beautiful women often…

Men with older brothers are more likely to become gay?

become gay

If you’re a guy with an older brother, there’s an increased chance you’re gay.

如果你是一个有哥哥的小伙子,那么你就有可能成为一个同性恋。

Scientists have noticed this pattern in previous research, but now they think they have a biological explanation as to why, and it starts long before birth. The results were published in the journal PNAS on Monday.

科学家已经注意到先前研究中的这种模式,但是现在他们认为他们已经有了一个生理解释关于为什么这会在出生在前就会产生。研究结果已经在周一发布在《美国国家科学院院刊》上了。

The researchers say that if their findings can be replicated, we may know at least one of the biological reasons some men are gay.

研究人员说如果他们的发现能够被复制,那么我们可能至少知道一些男人变成同性恋的生理原因之一。

Many factors may determine someone’s sexual orientation, but in this case, researchers noticed a pattern that may be linked to something that happens in the womb. The phenomenon is related to a protein linked to the Y chromosome (which women do not have) that is important to male brain development.

很多因素可能决定一些人的性取向,但是这种情况下,研究人员注意到了一种可能与发生在子宫里面的某些物质有关的模式。这种现象与连接着对男性大脑发育很重要的 Y染色体(女性没有)的一种蛋白质有关。

Researchers think it’s possible that when a woman gets pregnant with her first boy, this Y-linked protein gets into her bloodstream. The mother’s body recognizes the protein as a foreign substance, and her immune system responds, creating antibodies. If enough of these antibodies build up in the woman’s body and she gets pregnant with another a boy, they can cross the placental barrier and enter the brain of the second male fetus.

研究人员认为当一个女性怀孕第一个男孩的时候,这种和 Y 染色体相连的蛋白质是不可能进入她的血流中的。母体会把这种蛋白质当作一种外来物质,然后她的免疫系统就会做出反应产出抗体。如果这个女性的体内产生足够多的这些抗体,那么当她再次怀男孩的时候,这些抗体就会穿过胎盘进入第二胎男孩的大脑之中。

Earlier research has shown that the more older brothers a boy has, the more of a chance that boy will be attracted to men. A 2006 study showed that with each brother, the chance that a man will be gay goes up by about a third, but the researchers didn’t determine why that was.

早期的研究已经显示,如果一个男孩的哥哥越多,那么他就越有可能吸引男性。2006年的一个研究称:每多一个哥哥,一个男孩变成同性恋的几率就增加了三分之一, 但是研究人员没有找到为什么会是这样的原因。

Bogaert and his co-authors tested a small group of 142 women and 12 men ages 18 to 80 and found a higher concentration of antibodies to the protein, known as NLGN4Y, in blood samples from women than from men. They found the highest concentration of antibodies to the protein in women with gay younger sons who had older brothers, compared with women who had no sons or who had given birth to only heterosexual boys.

博格尔和他的合著者测试了一小群18 岁到80 岁的142 位女性以及12 位男性, 并且发现在女性血液样本中发现一种比男性血液样本之中更高浓度的蛋白质抗体,名为神经元Y连锁蛋白抗体。他们发现 , 与没有儿子的女性或者已经只生过同性恋男孩的女性相比 , 生过有哥哥的同性恋男孩的女性体内的蛋白质抗体含量最高。

The study builds on research Bogaert and his co-authors have been exploring for more than 20 years. Since their initial research that noted the trend, other research — although not all studies — have detected the phenomenon, even across cultures. One found that a man’s chances of being gay increased even if he was raised apart from his older brother.

以博格尔和他的合著者的研究为基础的课题已经探索了20多年了。 尽管他们最初的研究已经提到过这个趋势,但是别的研究,尽管不是所有的,甚至已经跨越文化, 察觉到这个现象。 其中一个说,即使一个男孩跟他的哥哥分开抚养,他变成同性恋的机会也会增加。

What your face says about your personality

Why the brain is so hungry

Why the brain is so hungry

A busy brain can mean a hungry (Why the greater the pressure the more we eat?)

body.

大脑忙碌可能会导致身体饥饿。

We often seek food after focused mental activity, like preparing for an exam or poring over spread sheets.

我们经常在集中进行脑力活动后寻找食物,比如备考或阅读报表。

Researchers speculate that heavy bouts of thinking drain energy from the brain, whose capacity to store fuel is very limited.

研究者猜测,高强度思考会耗尽脑部能量,而脑部存储养分的能力十分有限。

So the brain, sensing that it may soon require more calories to keep going, apparently stimulates bodily hunger, and even though there has been little in the way of physical movement or caloric expenditure, we eat.

所以,大脑感觉自己可能很快就需要更多热量来维持运转,显然会因此刺激身体产生饥饿感。尽管几乎没有进行体力运动或出现热量消耗,我们还是会吃东西。

This process may partly account for the weight gain so commonly seen in college students.

这个过程可以部分解释大学生中常见的体重增加现象。

Scientists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and another institution recently experimented with exercise to counter such post–study food binges.

前不久,亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校(University of Alabama at Birmingham)的科学家们和另一个研究机构试验通过运动对抗学习后的暴饮暴食。

Gary Hunter, an exercise physiologist at U.A.B., oversaw the study, which was published this month in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

这项研究由亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校的运动生理学家加里.亨特(Gary Hunter)主持,本月发表在《体育医学与科学》(Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise)上。

Hunter notes that strenuous activity both increases the amount of blood sugar and lactate – abyproduct of intense muscle contractions – circulating in the blood and augments blood flowto the head.

亨特指出,剧烈活动会增加在血液中循环的血糖和乳酸盐含量–这是肌肉剧烈收缩的副作用–增加脑部的血流量。

Because the brain uses sugar and lactate as fuel, researchers wondered if the increased flow offuel-rich blood during exercise could feed an exhausted brain and reduce the urge to overeat.

大脑以糖和乳酸盐为养料,所以研究者们想知道,锻炼中增加的养料丰富的血流量是否能给疲惫的大脑提供养分,从而减轻过度进食的冲动。

Thirty–eight healthy college students were invited to U.A.B.’s exercise lab to determine their fitness and metabolic rates – and to report what their favorite pizza was.

38名健康的大学生被邀请到亚拉巴马大学伯明翰分校的运动实验室,接受健康水平和代谢率检测,并报告自己最喜欢吃哪种披萨。

Afterward, they sat quietly for 35 minutes before being given as much of their favorite pizza as they wanted, which established a baseline measure of self–indulgence.

之后,他们静坐35分钟,然后他们想吃多少披萨就供应多少,以确定自我放纵的基线。

At a later date, the volunteers returned and spent 20 minutes tackling selections from collegeand graduate–school entrance exams.

在后来的一个日子里,志愿者们返回这里,花费20分钟时间做从大学和研究生入学考试中挑选的题目。

Hunter says this work has been used in other studies to induce mental fatigue and hunger.

亨特说,这种方法已经在其他研究中被用于引发精神疲劳和饥饿感。

Next, half the students sat quietly for 15 minutes, before being given pizza.

接下来,其中一半学生静坐15分钟,然后进食披萨。

The rest of the volunteers spent those 15 minutes doing intervals on a treadmill: two minutesof hard running followed by about one minute of walking, repeated five times.

剩下的志愿者用那15分钟时间在跑步机上做运动:快跑2分钟,然后走大约1分钟,重复5次。

This is the sort of brief but intensive routine, Hunter says, that should prompt the release ofsugar and lactate into the bloodstream.

亨特说,这种短暂而高强度的运动应该能促进糖和乳酸盐释放到血流中。

These students were then allowed to gorge on pizza, too.

这些学生之后也被允许尽情食用披萨。

But by and large, they did not overeat.

总体来说,他们没有过量进食。

In fact, the researchers calculated that the exercisers consumed about 25 fewer calories thanthey did during their baseline session.

实际上,研究者们计算出,这些锻炼者摄入的热量比在基线测试阶段大约少25卡路里。

The non exercisers, however, consumed about 100 calories more.

但是,那些没有锻炼的人大约多摄入了100卡路里。

When the researchers factored in the calories expended on running, they determined thatthose students actually consumed 200 fewer total calories after their brain workouts than theresting students.

研究者们把跑步中耗费的热量计算在内后发现,那些学生实际上在脑力活动后比其他学生一共少摄入200卡路里。

The study has limitations, of course.

这项研究当然具有局限性。

We only looked at lunch, Hunter says; the researchers do not know if the runners consumed extra calories at dinner.

我们只研究了午餐,亨特说。研究者不知道跑步者在晚餐时是否摄入了更多热量。

They also cannot tell whether other types of exercise would have the same effect as running, although Hunter says they suspect that if an activity causes someone to break into a sweat, it should also increase blood sugar and lactate, feeding the brain and weakening hunger’s call.

他们也不知道其他哪些运动会收到和跑步一样的效果,不过亨特说,他们猜测,如果一项运动能让人出汗,那么它应该也能增加血糖和乳酸盐释放,给大脑提供养分,从而缓解饥饿感。

How can the brain cheat you when you are sad?

Warning! Flu is around the world!

Flu is around the world

千万别觉得这只是普通的感冒而不去在意,它极有可能是流感,流感和感冒虽然症状相似可是却是有着巨大的不同!流感更容易致死!

流感病毒本身有着不确定的突变性,每隔几年就会产生几种新的变异,而你以前接种的疫苗抗体并不能识别新的变异体,这也导致流感病毒总会在一段时间后卷土重来。

目前在世界各地都爆出流感爆发的新闻,中国很多大城市医院的儿科已经人满为患;英国流感的爆发使得超过120人致死;美国流感则为近10年之最;澳大利亚目前死亡人数已超过370人……

因为流感的爆发,近期可能有许多人已经了解一个在英国、美国、澳大利亚肆无忌惮横行的流感:澳大利亚流感(Aussie Flu)。

千万别因为他的名字而讨厌澳大利亚,澳大利亚并不是这个流感的源头。作为以澳大利亚命名的流感病毒,澳大利亚人也和我们一样在这流感的爆发下瑟瑟发抖。

是不是很奇怪为什么澳大利亚流感以澳大利亚命名?

The Virus Strain has been called “Aussie flu” because it is the same strain that gave Australia its worst flu season for nearly a decade.
该病毒株被称为澳大利亚流感的原因是它已经持续肆虐在澳大利亚将近十年。

澳大利亚病毒的正式名称为H3N2,目前这种流感病毒正在英国以一种不可思议的速度传播着,《英国电讯报》在18号发表了一篇关于该流感的文章,标题为“流感在英国迅速传播的两周内已经有830万人感染类似病症”(Flu epidemic set to hit Britain within fortnight as 8.3 million now suffering symptoms)。

从其中一张由英格兰公共卫生部门(Public Health England)提供的资料组成的动图里就可以看到流感在英国蔓延的恐怖速度。

近期英国方面的资料显示:

The number of people admitted to hospital with influenza in the first week of 2018 was six times higher than during the same period last year.
今年第一个星期因为流感而住院的人数比去年同一时间段高六倍。

Some 758 people were hospitalized this year with confirmed flu cases, according to Public Health England. There were 110 during the same week in 2017.
英格兰公共卫生部收集到的资料显示,今年758个住院的人被确诊为流感,而去年2017年同一时间段则为110人。

There was also a rise in visits to general practitioners from people with flu-like illnesses, up from 18.8 per 100,000 people during the first week of last year, to 37.3 this year.
同时,在新年第一个星期,英国流感类似症状病患访问医生人数也大幅提升,从去年的每十万人中18.8人上升为今年的每十万人中37.3个人。

general practitioner:全科医生

The number of people admitted to intensive care almost tripled, with 240 in the first week of this year compared to 84 in 2017.
而因感冒进入重病特别护理的人数也几乎为去年的三倍,2017年为84人,今年则是240人。

英国RCGP研究检测中心的医疗总监Simon De Lusignan说道:

“We can certainly say that last week… flu in England took off, crossing the medium threshold. However, given how unpredictable flu can be, it is impossible to speculate how this will progress moving forward – rates may increase further, they may level out, or even decline.”
“我们可以确定的是,流感在上个星期已经在英格兰蔓延开来,并且已经超过了中等严重性。不管怎么样,流感病毒的变化是无法预知的,想要去推测流感未来的趋势是不可能的,流感蔓延可能会越来越严重,维持一段时间,感染人数可能也会逐渐下降。”

英格兰公共卫生部门的医疗总监Paul Cosford说:

“We are currently seeing a mix of flu types, including the A(H3N2) strain that circulated last winter in the UK and then in Australia. The A(H3N2) strain particularly affects older, more vulnerable age groups.”
“我们现在遇到了多种流感病毒,它包括了H3N2病毒株,该病毒株出现在上个冬季的英国以及澳大利亚,需要注意的是,H3N2病毒株更容易感染老年人以及身体较差的人。”

虽然远在地球的另一端,但中国被流感感染的人数也在迅猛增加。

Like many places in China this winter, Beijing has been hit by one of the worst flu epidemics in recent years.
在这个冬季,就像中国其他地方一样,北京也正面临着在近些年来最糟糕的流感病情。

Beijing reported 9,548 cases in the first week of 2018, a rise of more than 21 percent compared to the previous week.
在北京现在已经有9548件感染病例,在新年的第一个星期,对比去年感染人数增多了百分之二十一。

Six clinical stations staffed by doctors are in place to treat children at China-Japan Friendship Hospital. Around 500 patients a day went to see doctors in the emergency departmentso far this winter, with more than 20,000 patients a month seeking some kind of treatment.
在这个冬季,北京中日友好医院的六个接诊室全部安排了医生为生病的孩子们看病。平均每天都有500人来到急诊部看医生。平均每月有超过2万病患来到急诊部求诊。

The number of reported flu cases in Beijing have started to increase at a slower rate and the spread of infection is predicted to lessen in the next two weeks, the Beijing commission of Health and Family Planning said on Monday.
北京卫生和计划生育委员会在星期一说到,尽管北京方面流感感染人数也在缓慢的增加着,但是可以预测的是该趋势会在接下来的两个星期内慢慢减少。

而在这种时期当然少不了大家最关心的疫苗问题了,很遗憾的是,尽管人类目前抗击流感病毒最有效的方法是接种疫苗,但是根据全球流感中心(World Influenza Centre)的信息,即使是最新的流感疫苗对于澳大利亚病毒也并非是最有效的。

值得庆幸的是英国一家生物科技公司正在着手进行一项可以治愈大部分类型的流感疫苗,甚至还得到了中国一家风险投资公司的青睐和注资。

全球每年死于流感的人接近65万,相信如果该疫苗能被研发出来,我们每年就可以不用对流感如临大敌般诚惶诚恐。

When viewed under a microscope, the flu virus resembles a studded sphere, or pin cushion. Existing flu vaccines use surface proteins that lie on the outside of flu virus – the pinheads – to stimulate the body’s immune system to produce disease-fighting antibodies. A new vaccine developed by Vacitech uses core proteins to stimulate an immune response. These core proteins remain virtually unchanged in most viruses that cause illness.
通过显微镜观察流感病毒的时候,流感病毒看起来像是一个布满颗粒的球体,又或者是针线包。现有的流感疫苗使用病毒表面的蛋白质(或者说其表面的针头)来促进我们身体的免疫力,使我们身体里的抗体和病毒对抗起来。而该科技公司正在着手研发的疫苗则是使用病毒的核心蛋白引起身体免疫反应。对于大部分引起疾病的病毒来说,这些核心蛋白几乎一直保持不变。

流感和感冒的区别

许多人以为自己得的只是感冒,甚至以为流感只是重感冒,但是其中的区别可大了。

英国NHS Choice的文章“感冒还是流感?”(Cold or Flu?)里提到:

Flu is not a “bad cold”. Each year, thousands of people die from complications after catching the flu.
流感并非是重感冒!每年都有成千上万的人死于流感引发的并发症。

Colds and flu share some of the same symptoms (cough, sore throat), but are caused by different viruses. The flu can be much more serious than a cold.
感冒和流感有部分症状很相似,例如,它们都会使人感到喉咙痛并且引起咳嗽等,但是因为他们是由不同的病毒引起的,流感引发的症状比感冒更加严重。

看到这大家是否都觉得一阵惊慌?别着急,如果你平常多运动并且关注自己的健康,流感不一定会是你的烦恼。

If you’re generally fit and healthy, you can usually manage the symptoms of a cold or flu yourself without seeing your general practitioner.
如果你自身的身体素质较好,那么即使你有流感或者感冒的症状,你也不用非得去看家庭医生。

尽管感冒和流感的症状很相似,但是流感的症状则更加严重。

Colds cause more nasal problems than flu. Fever, fatigue and muscle aches are more likely and more severe with flu.
相比流感,感冒更容易引起和鼻子相关的症状。而类似发烧,疲劳和肌肉酸疼等更严重的症状则更可能是流感引起的。

感冒和流感共有的症状(symptom)包括:

Blocked or runny nose, sore throat, headaches, cough, sneezing, pressure in your ears and face, loss of taste and smell, a high temperature or fever, muscle aches and pains, feeling exhausted and needing to lie down.
鼻子堵塞和流清鼻涕、喉咙痛、头疼、咳嗽、打喷嚏、脸部及耳朵内有压力感、失去味觉和嗅觉、高烧、肌肉酸痛或感到疲劳需要躺下。

两者的区别在于:

A cold develops gradually over one or two days and you’re most contagious during the early stages when you have a runny nose and sore throat. You should begin to feel better after a few days but some colds can last up to two weeks.
感冒需要一到两天来加重,在感冒初期,你极有可能会把感冒病毒传染给他人,特别是在你鼻子开始流鼻涕并感受到喉咙疼的时候。在这之后的几天你的感冒会渐渐好转,但是一些感冒可能会持续一到两个星期。

The flu usually comes on much more quickly than a cold, and symptoms appear one to three days after infection. You should begin to feel better within a week or so, but you may feel tired for much longer.
流感的症状一般会比感冒来的更快,感染后一到三天出现流感症状。在之后的一个星期内你应该会渐渐好转,但是流感带来的疲劳感会持续很长一段时间。

不管是感冒还是流感,当你有以下一种状况的时候你一定要就医(get medical help):

❶ have a chronic condition (such as asthma, diabetes or heart disease);
有慢性病(如哮喘,糖尿病或者心脏病);

❷ Have a very high fever as well as an unusually severe headache or abdominal or chest pain.
高烧同时有严重的头痛或者感到腹部/胸痛。

Why do skin need vitamin C supplement?

Why do skin need vitamin C supplement?

Why do skin need vitamin C supplement

A go-to ingredient for fending off colds and flu as well as lessening stress levels, we’re used to taking vitamin C to boost our health, but if you didn’t know already it also works wonders on our skin.

维生素C能够预防感冒和流感,还能缓解压力。我们习惯服用维生素C来增强抵抗力,但是许多人不知道它同样还能改善我们的皮肤。

Hyped by beauty buffs everywhere, it’s considered a superhero vitamin that’s right up there with other age-defying ingredients like retinol or ceramides, but what exactly does it do?

不管哪里的美女都会称赞它,维生素C俨然已经成为抵抗衰老的超级英雄,同维生素A和天然保湿因子一起被大众谈及。但是它具体是如何起功效的呢?

What are the benefits?

它到底有什么好处?

A cult ingredient, not only does it penetrate your skin to fight free radical damage caused by the environment, but it also helps fade pigment, stop inflammation and repair tired or lacklustre complexions.

受大众喜爱的维生素C不仅能渗透到你的皮肤深处,帮你抵挡环境里的辐射,它还能缓解炎症、修复暗黄受损面容。

Vitamin C is also hailed as a wonder anti-ageing skincare ingredient as it acts as a great collagen booster, making skin look firmer and more luminous.

维生素C还被称为抗衰护肤的宝物,因为它就像胶原蛋白精华,使皮肤看起来更加紧致亮白。

What type should you be using?

你应该使用哪种类型的产品?

When it comes to looking for a suitable vitamin C product, it’s important to know that there are several different types including L-ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbyl phosphate, ascorbyl palmitate and retinyl ascorbate.

在选择合适的维生素C产品时,了解以下几种不同的种类十分重要。这些种类包括左旋维生素C、抗坏血酸磷酸酯钠、 抗坏血酸棕榈酸盐和抗坏血酸视黄醇。

While any of the above will undoubtedly benefit your skin, L-ascorbic acid is considered to be the most favourable, with the most amount of scientific research behind it.

上面任意一种都会改善你的皮肤质量。左旋维生素C被认为是效果最好,所以有大量关于它的科学研究。

Similarly, the right concentration is important here too. Most products should tell you how much of the ingredient they contain and, as a rule, potency between three and 20 per cent will be the most effective.

同样,浓度适当也很重要。大多数产品会标明其中所含的原料种类,3%-20%的维生素C浓度被认为是效果最好的比例。

Of course, the higher the percentage the quicker you’re likely to see results but, because the maximum skin absorption of vitamin C occurs at 20 per cent, anything above this may prove redundant.

当然,浓度越高效果越明显。但是皮肤能吸收的维生素浓度最多为20%,超过也是徒劳多余。

How often should you use it?

你该多久使用一次?

A wonder ingredient that’s hailed for its ability to protect your skin from UV damage and environmental aggressors, vitamin C is best used as part of your morning skincare routine; that being said, you can use it at night too.

维生素C能保护你皮肤隔离紫外线和环境损伤,所以补充维C应该成为每天早上护肤的必备步骤,当然,晚上你也应该使用它。

learn mandarin hong kong – Healthy body

Why the greater the pressure the more we eat?

Why the greater the pressure the more we eat

We all know what makes us fat: eating more in calories than we burn off in energy. But though this is true, it doesn’t answer the more interesting question – why do we overeat in the first place?

我们都知道当体内摄入的卡路里多于身体所消耗的热量,我们就会变胖。尽管事实如此,但一个更有趣的问题却没有得到解答——一开始我们为什么要吃那么多呢?

Why do I sometimes feel compelled to eat that bit of cake or bar of chocolate (Learn Chinese – How many types of Chocolate in the world?)

although I know I am going to regret it a few minutes later?

为什么有时尽管知道会后悔,但还是控制不住自己去吃一点蛋糕或者巧克力呢?

Is it just greed – or is something else going on?

仅仅是贪心吗?还是因为其他的原因?

Although self-control is important, there is mounting evidence that stress plays a significant part in weight gain.

尽管自控很重要,但是越来越多的证据显示压力对增重会很大的影响。

Chronic stress disrupts our sleep and our blood sugar levels. This leads to increased hunger and comfort eating.

长期的压力扰乱我们的作息,还会影响我们的血糖。它会让我们的饥饿感增加,借食消愁。

And that then leads to further disrupted sleep, even higher levels of stress and even more disrupted blood sugars. In time, this can lead not only to unhealthy levels of body fat, but also to type-2 diabetes.

这会进一步扰乱人体的睡眠,使压力增大,血糖紊乱。最后,它还能引发肥胖和2型糖尿病。

To see what can happen, Dr Giles Yeo, a member of the Trust Me, I’m a Doctor team, decided, with the help of scientists from Leeds University, to put himself through a particularly stressful day.

为了一探究竟,“相信我,我是医生”团队的加尔斯杨(Giles Yeo)博士决定,在利兹大学科学家的帮助下,亲自体验充满压力的一天。

The Leeds scientists started by asking Giles to do something called the Maastricht Stress Test.

利兹大学的科学家首先让加尔斯做一项马斯特里赫特压力测试。

They put him in front of a computer and made him rapidly subtract a number, 17, from another number, 2,043. He kept making mistakes, which for someone like Giles is particularly stressful.

他们将加尔斯坐在一台电脑前用2043减17,这样一直不停地做减法。他一直在出错,这对于他而言压力十足。

Then they got him to put his hand in a bath of ice-cold water and hold it there. Before and after these tests, the Leeds team measured Giles’s blood sugar levels.

然后科学家将他的手放在冰水缸里。在这些实验前后,都对加尔斯的血糖水平进行了测量。

Our blood sugar levels rise when we eat and, in a healthy person like Giles, they quickly return to normal.

我们进食时血糖会升高。但对于加尔斯这样的正常人来说,血糖将很快便恢复正常。

But what the Leeds team found was that on the day when Giles was being deliberately stressed, his blood sugar levels took three hours to return to normal – some six times longer than on a previous, stress-free day.

但是利兹大学的科学家发现,在加尔斯压力巨大的那天,他的血糖水平花了三个小时才恢复正常,比之前没有压力的那天慢了6倍的时间。

The reason this happens is that when you are stressed, your body goes into “fight or flight” mode.

原因是当你有压力时,你的身体便会进入“战斗还是逃跑”模式。

Your body thinks it is under attack and releases glucose into your blood to provide energy for your muscles.

你的身体认为遭到外界袭击,于是便向血液释放葡萄糖为肌肉提供能量。

But if you don’t need that energy to run away from danger, then your pancreas will pump out insulin to bring those blood sugar levels back down again.

但是如果你不要这些能量来抵御危险,你的胰腺便会释放出胰岛素重新将你的血糖降下来。

These rising levels of insulin and falling blood sugars will make you hungry – which is why you crave sugary carbs when you are stressed.

胰岛素的增多和血糖的升高会让你感到饥饿,这便是当你紧张时特别想吃甜食的原因。

The same sort of thing happens when you have a bad night’s sleep.

当你睡眠质量不好时,道理是一样的。

A recent study carried out by researchers at King’s College, London found that if you sleep-deprived people they would consume, on average, an extra 385kcal per day, which is equivalent to the calories in a large muffin.

最近一项由伦敦国王学院发起的研究发现,睡眠不足的人一天平均会消耗385千卡,相当于一大块松饼所含的热量。

Children also get the munchies when they haven’t had enough sleep.

儿童睡眠不够时也会产生饥饿感。

In another recent study, researchers took a small group of three- and four-year-olds (all regular afternoon nappers) and not only deprived them of their afternoon nap, but also kept them up for about two hours past their normal bedtime

在最近的另一项研究中,研究员挑选了一组三到四岁的孩子(均有睡午觉的习惯),实验中不仅不让他们睡午觉,晚上还把他们的睡觉时间推迟两个小时。

The following day, the children ate 20% more calories than usual, particularly more sugar and carbohydrates. They were then allowed to sleep as much as they wanted.

第二天,孩子们比平常多摄入20%的卡路里,尤其是摄入了更多的糖和碳水化合物。然后让他们想睡多久睡多久。

The day after that, they still consumed 14% more calories than normal.

过了一天,他们仍比平常多消耗了14%的卡路里。

So how can you reduce daily stress?

所以你该如何减轻压力?

Here’s a breathing technique, recommended by NHS Choices, which I find effective. You will get the most benefit if you make it part of your daily routine.

NHS Choices推荐过一项呼吸技巧,我觉得很有效。如果你每天都做,会对你身体有益处。

You can do it standing, sitting or lying – whatever is the most relaxing.

不管你是站着、坐着或是躺着,任何你觉得放松的姿势都可以做。

Start by breathing in as deeply as you can, through your nose, without forcing it, to a count of five

首先尽可能的呼吸,用鼻子呼气,尽力而为,数到五。

Then, gently exhale, through your mouth, to a count of five

然后慢慢地用嘴呼气,数到五。

Keep breathing in through your nose and out through your mouth – steadily

保持用鼻子吸气用嘴巴呼气。

Keep doing this for three to five minutes

坚持做五分钟。

One of the first things I would strongly recommend is to try to get a good night’s sleep. This is easier said than done, but NHS Choices provides some useful tips.

其中我强烈建议保持充足的睡眠。这说起来容易坚持下去很难,但是NHS Choices提供了许多很有用的建议。

You could also try some well established “stress-busting” techniques – such as exercising, gardening, mindfulness or yoga.

你也可以尝试如今发展完善的减压技巧,例如锻炼、打理花园、正念或瑜伽。

When I recently tested them, with the help of Prof Angela Clow, a stress expert from the University of Westminster, the mindfulness came out on top.

安吉拉·克洛是威斯敏斯特大学的压力研究专家。最近在他的帮助下,我对这些方法进行了测试,发现其中正念的效果最好。

But a key finding of our study was you really only got benefit if you enjoyed it.

但我们研究的一个关键发现便是,只有你真正享受,它才会对你有益。

So do try different things and see which works best for you.

所以多尝试几种方式,看哪一种对你来说最有效。

Mandarin Lesson – I have so much pressure

Tracking down an order

Tracking down an order

Tracking down an order
A: Excuse me, I’m sorry to trouble you. My name is Susan Ransom, and I have placed several orders with you company.
B: Yes, Mr. Ransom? This is Karl Miller. How may I help you?
A: Well, I wonder if you could track an order I placed with you last month. It hasn’t arrived yet.
B: Certainly, Ms. Ransom. Do you have an order number?

追查一笔订单
A:对不起,麻烦你了。我叫苏珊·兰森,我在你们公司订过几笔货。
B:什么事,兰森女士?我叫卡尔·米勒。我能为您做什么?
A:是这样,不知道你们能否帮我查一笔我上个月和你们订的货。这批货到现在还没有到。
B:当然可以,兰森女士。您有订单号吗?

How to Order Food in Chinese