The Earliest Fan –The Tpyes of Chinese Fans 最早的扇子——中國扇的種類

China is regarded as the kingdom of making fans. There are four or five hundred types of fans, among them the most popular ones are feather fans, palm-leaf fans, silk fans, cattail leave fans, round fans ( used by maids in palaces ), folding fans, bamboo fans and goose-feather fans. Each type of fans has its own function. The silk fans were used by ladies of wealthy families. The round fans were used by maids of honor in palaces and had the function of blocking the sunshine and warding off the wind, and showing the dignity of emperors. The cattail leave fans were usually used by peasant women, femail servants, woman matchmakers or sedan-chair bearers. As to the scholars, they would prefer folding fans. The goose-feather fan of Zhuge Liang, the most well-known strategist in ancient China, was the symbol of calmness, quick-wittedness and wisdom. In the Chinese painting Beauties Wearing Flowers by Zhoufang of the Tang Dynasty ( 619-907 ), the silk fans with long handles the ladies were holding were a kind of blocking fans. They were made of whith sild and were painted with peonies, making fans look very expensive and elegant. In the painting Han Xizai Hosting a Dinner Party by Gu Hongzhong of the South Tang period ( 937-975 ), Han Xizai was holding a square silk and bamboo fan with round corners, and his maids were holding round painted silk fans woth long handles. It shows that both silk and bamboo fans were favored by powerful families and nobles in ancient China.

中國被譽為制扇王國,扇子品種繁多,大約有四五百種,常見的有羽扇、芭蕉扇、團扇、蒲扇、宮扇、摺扇、竹扇、鵝毛扇等。它們功用不同,團扇為大家閨秀所用;宮扇用作儀仗、有「撇風日」、「示威儀」之意;為農婦、僕婦、媒婆、轎夫所用,文人書生慣用書畫摺扇;而中國著名軍事家諸葛亮手持的鵝毛扇,則是沉著,機智,智慧的象徵。唐代畫家周昉的《簪花仕女圖》上的侍女手持長柄絹團扇,是障扇的一個品種,用絹製成,並在素白的絹面上繪上牡丹,更顯得高貴華麗。五代南唐的顧閎中《韓熙載夜宴圖》此畫是韓熙手持著一柄方形圓角竹絲扇,他的丫鬟手執長柄繪畫圓形絹扇,反映了竹絲扇和絹扇都為豪門貴族所喜愛。


zuì zǎo de shàn zǐ ——zhōng guó shàn de zhǒng lèi

zhōng guó bèi yù wéi zhì shàn wáng guó ,shàn zǐ pǐn zhǒng fán duō ,dà yuē yǒu sì wǔ bǎi zhǒng ,cháng jiàn de yǒu yǔ shàn 、bā jiāo shàn 、tuán shàn 、pú shàn 、gōng shàn 、zhé shàn 、zhú shàn 、é máo shàn děng 。tā men gōng yòng bú tóng ,tuán shàn wéi dà jiā guī xiù suǒ yòng ;gōng shàn yòng zuò yí zhàng 、yǒu 「piě fēng rì 」、「shì wēi yí 」zhī yì ;wéi nóng fù 、pú fù 、méi pó 、jiào fū suǒ yòng ,wén rén shū shēng guàn yòng shū huà zhé shàn ;ér zhōng guó zhù míng jūn shì jiā zhū gě liàng shǒu chí de é máo shàn ,zé shì chén zhuó ,jī zhì ,zhì huì de xiàng zhēng 。táng dài huà jiā zhōu fǎng de 《zān huā shì nǚ tú 》shàng de shì nǚ shǒu chí cháng bǐng juàn tuán shàn ,shì zhàng shàn de yī gè pǐn zhǒng ,yòng juàn zhì chéng ,bìng zài sù bái de juàn miàn shàng huì shàng mǔ dān ,gèng xiǎn dé gāo guì huá lì 。wǔ dài nán táng de gù hóng zhōng 《hán xī zǎi yè yàn tú 》cǐ huà shì hán xī shǒu chí zhe yī bǐng fāng xíng yuán jiǎo zhú sī shàn ,tā de yā huán shǒu zhí cháng bǐng huì huà yuán xíng juàn shàn ,fǎn yìng le zhú sī shàn hé juàn shàn dōu wéi háo mén guì zú suǒ xǐ ài 。

The Earliest Fan – The History of Chinese Fans 最早的扇子——中國扇的歷史

The earliest fan could be traced back to the Yu and Shun periods, 22nd century B.C. – 21st century B.C.. In the Shang and Zhou periods ( 17th century B.C. – 11th century B.C. ), Zhishan, fans mode of feather and with a long handle, appeared and were regarded as a symbol of imperial dignity. In the Han Dynasty ( 206B.C. – 220A.D. ), along with the development of silk industry, silk fans, also known as Tuanshan, appeared. The silk fans were ellipsoid, rectangle, kidney – shaped or in the shape of crabapple – blossom, and the montures were made of sandalwood. From the end of the Han Dynasty to the Wei Jin periods and Northern and Southern Dynasties ( c. 220-589 ), the most famous fans were made of white goose feathers and were mostly used as tributes to the imperial court.

最早的扇子出現可以上溯到遠古的禹舜時代(約前22世紀-前21世紀初)。在商周時代(約前17世紀-前11世紀),人們製成了長柄的「稚扇」,是帝王威儀的象徵。在漢代(前206-西元220),絲織業開始發展,出現了絹扇,也稱為「團扇」,它在外型上有橢圓、長方、曲線等形狀,以檀香木製成。到了漢末到魏晉南北朝(約220-589),以白鵝羽毛製成的羽扇最為著名,多作為貢品進貢朝廷。

zuì zǎo de shàn zǐ ——zhōng guó shàn de lì shǐ
zuì zǎo de shàn zǐ chū xiàn kě yǐ shàng sù dào yuǎn gǔ de yǔ shùn shí dài (yuē qián 22shì jì -qián 21shì jì chū )。zài shāng zhōu shí dài (yuē qián 17shì jì -qián 11shì jì ),rén men zhì chéng le cháng bǐng de 「zhì shàn 」,shì dì wáng wēi yí de xiàng zhēng 。zài hàn dài (qián 206-gōng yuán 220),sī zhī yè kāi shǐ fā zhǎn ,chū xiàn le juàn shàn ,yě chēng wéi 「tuán shàn 」,tā zài wài xíng shàng yǒu tuǒ yuán 、cháng fāng 、qǔ xiàn děng xíng zhuàng ,yǐ tán xiāng mù zhì chéng 。dào le hàn mò dào wèi jìn nán běi cháo (yuē 220-589),yǐ bái é yǔ máo zhì chéng de yǔ shàn zuì wéi zhù míng ,duō zuò wéi gòng pǐn jìn gòng cháo tíng 。

Buddhist pearl of Hexi Corridor – Dunhuang Mogao Caves (3) 河西走廊的佛教明珠——敦煌莫高窟(3)

The Mogao Caves extant Northern Wei Dynasty to Yuan cavern 735, divides into the north and south two areas. South the area is Mogao Caves’ main doby, is engaged in the religious activities for the clergy the place, some 487 caverns, have the mural or make an idol, but after other is the clergy leads a pious life the place which, the housing and the death buries, ahs life facilities and so on the adobe bed, stove kand, flue, niche, dask lamp. Two areas total 492 cavern existence mural and makes an idol, has the mural 45,000 square meter, the argillaceous painted sculpture 2415, Tang Songmu constructs cliff eave 5, as well as several thousand lotus flower pillars, spread out on the floor the decorative brick and so on.

莫高窟現存北魏至元的洞窟735個,分為南北兩區。南區為莫高窟的主體,為僧侶們從事宗教活動的場所,有487個洞窟,均有壁畫或塑像。北區有248個洞窟,其中只有5個存在壁畫或塑像,而其他的都是僧侶修行、居住和死亡後掩埋的場所。有土炕、灶炕、煙道、壁龕、臺燈等生活設施。兩區共計492個洞窟存在壁畫和塑像,有壁畫4.5萬平方米,泥質彩塑2415尊、唐宋木構崖簷5個,以及數千塊蓮花柱石、鋪地花磚等。

hé xī zǒu láng de fó jiào míng zhū ——dūn huáng mò gāo kū (3)

mò gāo kū xiàn cún běi wèi zhì yuán de dòng kū 735gè ,fèn wéi nán běi liǎng qū 。nán qū wéi mò gāo kū de zhǔ tǐ ,wéi sēng lǚ men cóng shì zōng jiāo huó dòng de chǎng suǒ ,yǒu 487gè dòng kū ,jūn yǒu bì huà huò sù xiàng 。běi qū yǒu 248gè dòng kū ,qí zhōng zhǐ yǒu 5gè cún zài bì huà huò sù xiàng ,ér qí tā de dōu shì sēng lǚ xiū xíng、jū zhù hé sǐ wáng hòu yǎn mái de chǎng suǒ 。yǒu tǔ kàng 、zào kàng 、yān dào 、bì kān 、tái dēng děng shēng huó shè shī 。liǎng qū gòng jì 492gè dòng kū cún zài bì huà hé sù xiàng ,yǒu bì huà 4.5wàn píng fāng mǐ ,ní zhì cǎi sù 2415zūn 、táng sòng mù gòu yá yán 5gè ,yǐ jí shù qiān kuài lián huā zhù shí 、pù dì huā zhuān děng 。

Buddhist pearl of Hexi Corridor – Dunhuang Mogao Caves (2) 河西走廊的佛教明珠——敦煌莫高窟(2)

Mogao Caves are located southeast the Chinese Gansu Province Dunhuang esat 25 kilometer place Mt. Mingsha on the foothill cliff, first near dawdle Quan River, face east, north and south length 1680 meters, height 50 meters. Cavern distribution height scattered about, row after row, about most has five. Its beginning consturcts at 16 country times, the Li obliging Repairs Mogao Caves Niche for a statue of Buddha Tablet according to Tang the record. Former Qin establishes a reign title for two years ( 366 years ), the Buddhist priest happy goes via this mountain, sees the golden light sparkle suddenly, if presently ten thousand Buddha, therefore then opened cutting on the dike the first cavern. Hereafter the law good Zen master and so on continues in this to construct the hole to repair the imperial sacrifices, is called the desert high hole, Italy is the desert high place. Because later generation desert and not general, then rename as Mogao Caves. When Northern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty and Northern Zhou Dynasty, the ruler respects and believes in Buddhism, the rock cave construction has the nobility support, the development is quick. The Sui and Tang dynasties time, along with Silk Road prosperity, Mogao Caves is prosperous, when Wu Zetian has cavern thousand. After the Anlushan Rebellion, Dunhuang successively and turns over to the troops fighting in a good cause by Turfan to seize, but the statuary activity too greatly has not been affected. The Northern Song Dynasty, the tangut and the Yuan Dynasty, Mogao Caves gradually hasten the decline, only repaired the previous dynasty hole room primarily, newly built extremely few. After Yuan Dynasty, along with Silk Road abandoning, Mogao Caves also stopped constructing and is neglected gradually in common people’s field fo vision. After Kanghsi 40 years ( in1701 ), here only then again manner attention. The modern times, people usual name it “ Thousand Buddhas Cave ”.

河西走廊的佛教明珠——敦煌莫高窟(2)
莫高窟位於中國甘肅省敦煌市東南25公里處的鳴沙山東麓斷崖上,前臨宕泉河,面向東,南北長1680米,高50米。洞窟分佈高低錯落、鱗次櫛比,上、下最多有5層。它始建於十六國時期,據唐《李克讓重修莫高窟佛龕》的記載,前秦建元二年(366年),僧人樂僔路經此山,忽見金光閃耀,如現萬佛,於是便在岩壁上開鑿了第一個洞窟。此後法良禪師等又繼續在此建洞修禪,成為「漠高窟」,意為「沙漠的高處」。後世因「漠」與「莫」通用,便改稱為「莫高窟」。北魏、西魏和北周時,統治者崇信佛教,石窟建造得到王公貴族們的支持,發展較快。隋唐時期,隨著絲綢之路的繁榮,莫高窟更是興盛,在武則天時有洞窟千餘個。安史之亂後,敦煌先後由吐蕃和歸義軍佔領,但造像活動未受太大影響。北宋、西夏和元代,莫高窟漸趨衰弱,僅以重建前朝窟室為主,新建極少。元朝以後,隨著絲綢之路的廢棄,莫高窟也停止了興建並逐漸湮沒於是人的視野中。直到康熙四十年(1701年)後,這裏才重新為人注意。近代,人們通常稱其為「千佛洞」。

hé xī zǒu láng de fó jiào míng zhū ——dūn huáng mò gāo kū (2)
mò gāo kū wèi yú zhōng guó gān sù shěng dūn huáng shì dōng nán 25gōng lǐ chù de míng shā shān dōng lù duàn yá shàng ,qián lín dàng quán hé ,miàn xiàng dōng ,nán běi cháng 1680mǐ ,gāo 50mǐ 。dòng kū fēn bù gāo dī cuò luò 、lín cì zhì bǐ ,shàng 、xià zuì duō yǒu 5céng 。tā shǐ jiàn yú shí liù guó shí qī ,jù táng 《lǐ kè ràng cháng xiū mò gāo kū fó kān 》de jì zǎi ,qián qín jiàn yuán èr nián (366nián ),sēng rén lè zǔn lù jīng cǐ shān ,hū jiàn jīn guāng shǎn yào ,rú xiàn wàn fó ,yú shì biàn zài yán bì shàng kāi záo le dì yī gè dòng kū 。cǐ hòu fǎ liáng chán shī děng yòu jì xù zài cǐ jiàn dòng xiū chán ,chéng wéi 「mò gāo kū 」,yì wéi 「shā mò de gāo chù 」。hòu shì yīn 「mò 」yǔ 「mò 」tōng yòng ,biàn gǎi chēng wéi 「mò gāo kū 」。běi wèi 、xī wèi hé běi zhōu shí ,tǒng zhì zhě chóng xìn fó jiào ,shí kū jiàn zào dé dào wáng gōng guì zú men de zhī chí ,fā zhǎn jiào kuài 。suí táng shí qī ,suí zhe sī chóu zhī lù de fán róng ,mò gāo kū gèng shì xìng shèng ,zài wǔ zé tiān shí yǒu dòng kū qiān yú gè 。ān shǐ zhī luàn hòu ,dūn huáng xiān hòu yóu tǔ bō hé guī yì jūn zhàn lǐng ,dàn zào xiàng huó dòng wèi shòu tài dà yǐng xiǎng 。běi sòng 、xī xià hé yuán dài ,mò gāo kū jiàn qū shuāi ruò ,jǐn yǐ chóng jiàn qián cháo kū shì wéi zhǔ ,xīn jiàn jí shǎo 。yuán cháo yǐ hòu ,suí zhe sī chóu zhī lù de fèi qì ,mò gāo kū yě tíng zhǐ le xìng jiàn bìng zhú jiàn yān mò yú shì rén de shì yě zhōng 。zhí dào kāng xī sì shí nián (1701nián )hòu ,zhè lǐ cái chóng xīn wéi rén zhù yì 。jìn dài ,rén men tōng cháng chēng qí wéi 「qiān fó dòng 」。

Dunhuang Mogao Caves(1) 敦煌莫高窟(1)

Mogao Caves are the nation key cultural relic preservation organ, is named Thousand Buddhas Cave, is situated west the Gansu Corridor end Dunhuang, is world famous by the fine mural and the cast. Its beginning constructs at 16 countries’ former Qin times, has been through repeatedly 16 countries, the Northern Dynasty, Sui, Tang, five generations, Tangut, the Yuan and so on all previous dynasties constructing, forms the huge scale, existing cavern 735, the mural 45,000 square meter, argillaceous painted sculpture 2,415, are in the world the extant scale is biggest, the content richest Buddhism art place. Since the modern times had discovered the Sutra Cave, in had 50,000 ancient times cultural relics, and grew specially to study the Sutra Cave ancient book and Dunhuang art discipline – Dunhuang studies. But since Mogao Caves receive many people in the modern time for the damage, the cultural relic massively drain, its integrity was seriously destroyed. In 1961, Mogao Caves are announced by the People’s Republic of China State Council one of for first batch of national key cultural relic preservation organs. In 1987, Mogao Caves are listed as the world culture inheritance.

河西走廊的佛教明珠——敦煌莫高窟(1)
莫高窟屬於全國重點文物保護單位,俗稱千佛洞,坐落在河西走廊西端的敦煌,以精美的壁畫和塑像聞名於世。它始建於十六國的前秦時期,歷經十六國、北朝、隋、唐、五代、西夏、元等歷代的興建,形成巨大的規模,現有洞窟735個,壁畫4.5萬平方米、泥質彩塑2415尊,是世界上現存規模最大、內容最豐富的佛教藝術地。近代以來又發現了藏經洞、內有5萬多件古代文物,並衍生出了一門專門研究藏經洞典籍和敦煌藝術的學科——敦煌學。但莫高窟在近代以來受到許多人為的損傷,文物大量流失,其完整性已被嚴重破壞。1961年,莫高窟被中華人民共和國國務院公佈為第一批全國重點文物保護單位之一。1987年,莫高窟被列為世界文化遺產。

hé xī zǒu láng de fó jiào míng zhū ——dūn huáng mò gāo kū (1)

mò gāo kū shǔ yú quán guó zhòng diǎn wén wù bǎo hù dān wèi ,sú chēng qiān fó dòng ,zuò luò zài hé xī zǒu láng xī duān de dūn huáng ,yǐ jīng měi de bì huà hé sù xiàng wén míng yú shì 。tā shǐ jiàn yú shí liù guó de qián qín shí qī ,lì jīng shí liù guó 、běi cháo 、suí 、táng 、wǔ dài 、xī xià 、yuán děng lì dài de xīng jiàn ,xíng chéng jù dà de guī mó ,xiàn yǒu dòng kū 735gè ,bì huà 4.5wàn píng fāng mǐ 、ní zhì cǎi sù 2415zūn ,shì shì jiè shàng xiàn cún guī mó zuì dà 、nèi róng zuì fēng fù de fó jiào yì shù dì 。jìn dài yǐ lái yòu fā xiàn le cáng jīng dòng 、nèi yǒu 5wàn duō jiàn gǔ dài wén wù ,bìng yǎn shēng chū le yī mén zhuān mén yán jiū cáng jīng dòng diǎn jí hé dūn huáng yì shù de xué kē ——dūn huáng xué 。dàn mò gāo kū zài jìn dài yǐ lái shòu dào xǔ duō rén wéi de sǔn shāng ,wén wù dà liàng liú shī ,qí wán zhěng xìng yǐ bèi yán zhòng pò huài 。1961nián ,mò gāo kū bèi zhōng huá rén mín gòng hé guó guó wù yuàn gōng bù wéi dì yī pī quán guó zhòng diǎn wén wù bǎo hù dān wèi zhī yī 。1987nián ,mò gāo kū bèi liè wéi shì jiè wén huà yí chǎn 。

Chinese Opera Mask 京劇臉譜

Facial makeup in Beijing opera, is a special feature of a national cosmetic. As each historical figure or a certain type of person has an approximate spectral type, like singing and playing music to the music, so called “types of facial makeup in operas”. On the sources of types of facial makeup in operas, the general view is from mask.
Types of Beijing opera facial makeup are based on certain personality, temperament or some special types of figures for the use of certain colors. Red has expressed his Warriors of strong types of facial make up such as Guan Yu, Jiang Wei, Chang Yuchun; Black said the types of facial makeup refers to critized people, integrity, bravery and even reckless, such as Bao Zheng and Zhang Fei, Li Kui; Yellow types of facial makeup represent vicious brutality, such as Yuwen Chengdu, and Dian Wei. Blue or green types of facial makeup refer to the figures represented irritable, such as Ambassador Dou, Ma Wu; General treacherous court official is represented by the white type of facial makeup, ba guys, such as Cao Cao, Zhao Gao.
In the past 200 years, numerous schools and celebrated performers have emerged. Many of them are emulated by modern-day actors and actresses. Peking Opera represents an important part of Chinese culture and has become a refined form of art as a result of the hard work of hundreds of artists over the past two centuries.

京劇臉譜,是具有民族特色的一種特殊的化妝方法。由於每個歷史人物或某一種類型的人物都有一種大概的譜式,就像唱歌、奏樂都要按照樂譜一樣,所以稱為「臉譜」。關於臉譜的來源,一般的說法是來自假面具。
京劇臉譜,是根據某種性格、性情或某種特殊類型的人物為採用某些色彩的。紅色臉譜表示忠勇士義烈,如關羽、薑維、常遇春;黑色的臉譜表示剛烈、正直、勇敢甚至魯莽,如包拯、張飛、李逵等;黃色的臉譜表示兇狠殘暴,如宇文成都、典韋。藍色或綠色的臉譜表示一些粗豪暴躁的人物,如竇爾敦、馬武等;白色的臉譜一般表示奸臣、壞人,如曹操、趙高等。
在過去二百年裏,大量的流派和表演大師出現,他們中許多人成為現代演員的效仿對象,兩個世紀以來,由於很多藝術家的辛苦工作,京劇已經發展成一門完善的藝術形式,它代表了中國藝術很重要的一部分。

jīng jù liǎn pǔ

jīng jù liǎn pǔ ,shì jù yǒu mín zú tè sè de yī zhǒng tè shū de huà zhuāng fāng fǎ 。yóu yú měi gè lì shǐ rén wù huò mǒu yī zhǒng lèi xíng de rén wù dōu yǒu yī zhǒng dà gài de pǔ shì ,jiù xiàng chàng gē 、zòu yuè dōu yào àn zhào yuè pǔ yī yàng ,suǒ yǐ chēng wéi 「liǎn pǔ 」。guān yú liǎn pǔ de lái yuán ,yī bān de shuō fǎ shì lái zì jiǎ miàn jù 。
jīng jù liǎn pǔ ,shì gēn jù mǒu zhǒng xìng gé 、xìng qíng huò mǒu zhǒng tè shū lèi xíng de rén wù wéi cǎi yòng mǒu xiē sè cǎi de 。hóng sè liǎn pǔ biǎo shì zhōng yǒng shì yì liè ,rú guān yǔ 、jiāng wéi 、cháng yù chūn ;hēi sè de liǎn pǔ biǎo shì gāng liè 、zhèng zhí 、yǒng gǎn shèn zhì lǔ mǎng ,rú bāo zhěng 、zhāng fēi 、lǐ kuí děng ;huáng sè de liǎn pǔ biǎo shì xiōng hěn cán bào ,rú yǔ wén chéng dū 、diǎn wéi 。lán sè huò lǜ sè de liǎn pǔ biǎo shì yī xiē cū háo bào zào de rén wù ,rú dòu ěr dūn 、mǎ wǔ děng ;bái sè de liǎn pǔ yī bān biǎo shì jiān chén 、huài rén ,rú cáo cāo 、zhào gāo děng 。
zài guò qù èr bǎi nián lǐ ,dà liàng de liú pài hé biǎo yǎn dà shī chū xiàn ,tā men zhōng xǔ duō rén chéng wéi xiàn dài yǎn yuán de xiào fǎng duì xiàng ,liǎng gè shì jì yǐ lái ,yóu yú hěn duō yì shù jiā de xīn kǔ gōng zuò ,jīng jù yǐ jīng fā zhǎn chéng yī mén wán shàn de yì shù xíng shì ,tā dài biǎo le zhōng guó yì shù hěn zhòng yào de yī bù fèn 。

Peking opera (2) 京劇(2)

Peking opera is a synthesis of stylized action, singing, dialogue and mime, acrobatic fighting and dancing to represent a story or depict different characters and their feelings of gladness, anger, sorrow, happiness, surprise, fear and sadness. In Peking opera there are four main types of roles: sheng ( male ), dan ( young female ), jing ( painted face, male ), and chou ( clown, male or female ). The characters may be loyal or treacherous, beatuiful or ugly, good or bad, their images being vividly manifested.
The repertoire of Peking opera is mainly engaged in fairy tales of preceding dynasties, important historical events, emperors, ministers and generals, geniuses and great beauties, from the ancient times to Yao, Shun, Yu, the Spring and Autumn Period, the Warring States Period and the dynasties of Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing.
The music of Peking opera is that of the “plate and cavity style”. Its melody with harmonious rhythms is graceful and pleasing to the ears. The performance is accompanied by a tune played on wind instruments, percussion instruments and stringed instruments, the cheif musical insturments being jinghu, yueqin, sanxian, suona horn, flute drum, big-gong, cymbals, small-gong, etc.
The costumes in Peking opera are graceful, magnificent, elegant and brilliant, most of which are made in handcraft embroidery. As the traditional Chinese patterns are adopted, the costumes are of a high aesthetic value.
The types of facial makeups in Peking opera are rich and various, depicting different characters and remarkable images, therefore they are highly appreciated. Moreover there are numerous fixed editions of facial makeup.

京劇集合動作、歌唱、對話和獨白、雜技、舞蹈為一體,講述一個故事或刻畫不同人物並表現他們的情感,如開心、憤怒、傷心、喜悅、驚奇、害怕和悲痛。京劇裏一般有四類角色:生(男子)、旦(青年女子)、淨(花臉,男)、醜(小丑,男女皆有)。無論忠奸、美醜或是好壞,都能在京劇得以生動地表現。
京劇的劇碼多以前朝的民間故事、歷史事件、歷代皇帝大臣或才子佳人的故事為題材,從遠古到堯、舜、禹到春秋、戰國時代、還有秦、漢、唐、宋、元、明、清各朝。
京劇的曲調基本上屬於「板腔體」,音調和諧,悅耳動聽。伴奏的樂器包括管樂器、打擊樂器和絃樂器,主要有京胡、月琴、三弦,還有嗩呐、笛、鼓、大鑼、鐃鈸、小鑼等。
京劇的戲服顏色鮮豔,工藝精細,大多數經過手工編制而成。在服飾設計開始採用中國傳統模式之後,京劇的戲服也相對具有很高的欣賞價值。
京劇臉譜樣式多樣,表現豐富,刻畫出性格各異的人物形象,因此受到高度的讚賞。另外,臉譜還有幾個固定的表現模式,但是形式可以豐富多樣。

jīng jù(2)

jīng jù jí hé dòng zuò 、gē chàng 、duì huà hé dú bái 、zá jì 、wǔ dǎo wéi yī tǐ ,jiǎng shù yī gè gù shì huò kè huà bù tóng rén wù bìng biǎo xiàn tā men de qíng gǎn ,rú kāi xīn 、fèn nù 、shāng xīn 、xǐ yuè 、jīng qí 、hài pà hé bēi tòng 。jīng jù lǐ yī bān yǒu sì lèi jué sè :shēng (nán zǐ )、dàn (qīng nián nǚ zǐ )、jìng (huā liǎn ,nán )、chǒu (xiǎo chǒu ,nán nǚ jiē yǒu )。wú lùn zhōng jiān 、měi chǒu huò shì hǎo huài ,dōu néng zài jīng jù dé yǐ shēng dòng de biǎo xiàn 。
jīng jù de jù mù duō yǐ qián cháo de mín jiān gù shì 、lì shǐ shì jiàn 、lì dài huáng dì dà chén huò cái zǐ jiā rén de gù shì wéi tí cái ,cóng yuǎn gǔ dào yáo 、shùn 、yǔ dào chūn qiū 、zhàn guó shí dài 、hái yǒu qín 、hàn 、táng 、sòng 、yuán 、míng 、qīng gè cháo 。
jīng jù de qǔ diào jī běn shàng shǔ yú 「bǎn qiāng tǐ 」,yīn diào hé xié ,yuè ěr dòng tīng 。bàn zòu de yuè qì bāo kuò guǎn yuè qì 、dǎ jī yuè qì hé xián yuè qì ,zhǔ yào yǒu jīng hú 、yuè qín 、sān xián ,hái yǒu suǒ nà 、dí 、gǔ 、dà luó 、náo bó 、xiǎo luó děng 。
jīng jù de xì fú yán sè xiān yàn ,gōng yì jīng xì ,dà duō shù jīng guò shǒu gōng biān zhì ér chéng 。zài fú shì shè jì kāi shǐ cǎi yòng zhōng guó chuán tǒng mó shì zhī hòu ,jīng jù de xì fú yě xiāng duì jù yǒu hěn gāo de xīn shǎng jià zhí 。
jīng jù liǎn pǔ yàng shì duō yàng ,biǎo xiàn fēng fù ,kè huà chū xìng gé gè yì de rén wù xíng xiàng ,yīn cǐ shòu dào gāo dù de zàn shǎng 。lìng wài ,liǎn pǔ hái yǒu jǐ gè gù dìng de biǎo xiàn mó shì ,dàn shì xíng shì kě yǐ fēng fù duō yàng 。

Peking Opera 京劇

Originally a form of local theatre, Peking Opera spread all over the country and then became the national opera of China. About 200 years ago, the Qing Emperor Qianlong toured in southern China and developed an interest in the local operas. On his 80th birthday, he let locaal opera troupes come to Beijing to perform for him. Some remained in Beijing after celebration. The ones from Anhui and Hubei were incorporated with the palace opera-Kunqu Opera, which formed the Peking Opera. Peking Opera combines stylized acting woth singing, dancing ,musical dialogues, martial arts, colorful facial makeup and fantastic costumes.
Males roles are “Sheng”, and clowns are “Chou”. Each role, according to their sex, age and disposition, is characterized by different designs of facial makeup, say, Jing representing a rough, frank character and Hua Face representing a cruel or sinister character. So the audience can easily tell what kind of character an actor is performing. Facial makeup, costumes and head-dresses are wonderful works of traditional art.
In the past, both Dan and Sheng roles were played by male actors, but now they also can be played by female. It is necessary to see Peking Opera while you are in China, just as seeing an opera while in Italy. There are also some other types of opera staged in China, such as Kunqu Opera, Pingju Opera and Heibei Bangzi as well as other operas from different places.

京劇本來是一種地方性的戲劇表演形式,由於它傳遍中國大江南北,深受群眾歡迎與喜愛,所以就慢慢演變成了代表中國藝術特色的全國性戲劇。大約在200多年前,清朝的乾隆在南巡時,對地方上的戲劇產生了濃厚的興趣。於是,在他80歲生日的時候,下旨傳召了很多地方上的戲劇表演團來為他祝壽。部分戲劇表演者在表演結束後,就留在了北京。這些來自安徽與湖北的表演家將昆曲與宮廷戲劇相結合,逐步演變和發展成為了享譽中國的「京劇」。京劇表演融合了唱、念、做、打等多種藝術表現形式,輔以五彩繽紛的服裝道具以及化妝。
在京劇中,男性的角色被稱為「生」,小丑被稱為「醜」。每個角色都會依照他們的性別、年齡及個性,在臉上畫不同的臉譜,比如說「淨」代表的是一個兇神惡煞坦率直白的角色,而「花」臉則是邪惡與殘酷的代表。這樣,觀眾可以很容易的分清這些演員所扮演的角色是什麼樣的性格。化妝、服飾、行頭——這些都是令人稱奇的藝術品。
在過去,京劇中的角色只能由男性扮演,而現在,無論是男人女人,都可以登臺演出了。當你來到中國的時候,一定要去看一場京劇,就像你到了義大利一定要去聽一場歌劇一樣。當然,中國還有很多其他的喜劇,比如說「昆曲」、「評劇」、「河北梆子」等等。

jīng jù

jīng jù běn lái shì yī zhǒng dì fāng xìng de xì jù biǎo yǎn xíng shì ,yóu yú tā chuán biàn zhōng guó dà jiāng nán běi ,shēn shòu qún zhòng huān yíng yǔ xǐ ài ,suǒ yǐ jiù màn màn yǎn biàn chéng le dài biǎo zhōng guó yì shù tè sè de quán guó xìng xì jù 。dà yuē zài 200duō nián qián ,qīng cháo de qián lóng zài nán xún shí ,duì dì fāng shàng de xì jù chǎn shēng le nóng hòu de xìng qù 。yú shì ,zài tā 80suì shēng rì de shí hòu ,xià zhǐ chuán zhào le hěn duō dì fāng shàng de xì jù biǎo yǎn tuán lái wèi tā zhù shòu 。bù fèn xì jù biǎo yǎn zhě zài biǎo yǎn jié shù hòu ,jiù liú zài le běi jīng 。zhè xiē lái zì ān huī yǔ hú běi de biǎo yǎn jiā jiāng kūn qǔ yǔ gōng tíng xì jù xiàng jié hé ,zhú bù yǎn biàn hé fā zhǎn chéng wéi le xiǎng yù zhōng guó de 「jīng jù 」。jīng jù biǎo yǎn róng hé le chàng 、niàn 、zuò 、dǎ děng duō zhǒng yì shù biǎo xiàn xíng shì ,fǔ yǐ wǔ cǎi bīn fēn de fú zhuāng dào jù yǐ jí huà zhuāng 。
zài jīng jù zhōng ,nán xìng de jué sè bèi chēng wéi 「shēng 」,xiǎo chǒu bèi chēng wéi 「chǒu 」。měi gè jué sè dōu huì yī zhào tā men de xìng bié 、nián líng jí gè xìng ,zài liǎn shàng huà bù tóng de liǎn pǔ ,bǐ rú shuō 「jìng 」dài biǎo de shì yī gè xiōng shén è shà tǎn shuài zhí bái de jué sè ,ér 「huā 」liǎn zé shì xié è yǔ cán kù de dài biǎo 。zhè yàng ,guān zhòng kě yǐ hěn róng yì de fēn qīng zhè xiē yǎn yuán suǒ bàn yǎn de jué sè shì shén me yàng de xìng gé 。huà zhuāng 、fú shì 、xíng tóu ——zhè xiē dōu shì lìng rén chēng qí de yì shù pǐn 。
zài guò qù ,jīng jù zhōng de jué sè zhǐ  néng yóu nán xìng bàn yǎn ,ér xiàn zài ,wú lùn shì nán rén nǚ rén ,dōu kě yǐ dēng tái yǎn chū le 。dāng nǐ lái dào zhōng guó de shí hòu ,yī dìng yào qù kàn yī chǎng jīng jù ,jiù xiàng nǐ dào le yì dà lì yī dìng yào qù tīng yī chǎng gē jù yī yàng 。dāng rán ,zhōng guó hái yǒu hěn duō qí tā de xǐ jù ,bǐ rú shuō 「kūn qǔ 」、「píng jù 」、「hé běi bāng zǐ 」děng děng 。

Chinese Traditional Kite Craft(2) 中國傳統風箏(2)

The Ming ( 1368-1644 ) and Qin dynasties, were the peak period of the Chinese kite. The kites underwent great development in size, design, decoration and flying skills. Literators at that time made kite by themselves, and sent to relatives and friends as a gitf, regarding it a literary pursuit. In recent years, kite flying has publicized as a sports activity as well as entertainment.
To make a kite, first, the right kind of bamboo strips must be selected for the frame. It should be thick and strong for a kite if large dimensions in order to stand the wing pressure. The regular paper or sometimes silk is used to cover the frame. Silk kites, especially, are more durable and generally of higher artistic value. Third, painting the kite may be done in each way. Kites could be generally divided into two catefories: the Hard Wing and the Soft Wing. The Hard Wing can endure more air pressure and competitively fly higher, whilst the latter can fly farther,although it can not fly as high. In patterns, besides the traditional ones of animals, birds,worms, fishes,new patterns if human images emerged in modern times.
China has a large area of territory. As a traditional culture and folk art, the kite has formed unique style of different regions during its development, among which the most famous ones are the styles of Beijing, Tianjin, Weifang in Shandong Province, Sichuan and Guangdong.

明清時代(西元1368-1911年)是中國風箏發展的鼎盛時期,明清風箏在大小、樣式、紮制技術、裝飾和放飛技藝上都有了超越前代的巨大進步。當時的文人親手紮繪風箏,除自己放飛外,還贈送親友,並認為這是一種極為風雅的活動。近年來,中國的風箏事業得到了長足的發展,放風箏開始作為體育運動專案和健身娛樂活動普及起來。
中國風箏以細竹紮成骨架,再糊以紙或絹製作而成。風箏的種類主要分為「硬翅」和「軟翅」兩類。「硬翅」風箏翅膀堅硬,吃風大,飛得高。「軟翅」風箏柔軟,飛不高,但是飛得遠。在樣式上,除了傳統的禽、獸、蟲、魚外,近代還發展出了人物風箏等新樣式。中國地域遼闊、風箏作為中國的傳統文化和民間藝術,在長期發展過程中,產生出許多具有不同地域特色的種類、樣式和流派。其中以北京、天津、山東濰坊、四川、廣東所制的風箏最為著名。

zhōng guó chuán tǒng fēng zhēng (2)

míng qīng shí dài (gōng yuán 1368-1911nián )shì zhōng guó fēng zhēng fā zhǎn de dǐng shèng shí qī ,míng qīng fēng zhēng zài dà xiǎo 、yàng shì 、zhā zhì jì shù 、zhuāng shì hé fàng fēi jì yì shàng dōu yǒu le chāo yuè qián dài de jù dà jìn bù 。dāng shí de wén rén qīn shǒu zhā huì fēng zhēng ,chú zì jǐ fàng fēi wài ,hái zèng sòng qīn yǒu ,bìng rèn wéi zhè shì yī zhǒng jí wéi fēng yǎ de huó dòng 。jìn nián lái ,zhōng guó de fēng zhēng shì yè dé dào le cháng zú de fā zhǎn ,fàng fēng zhēng kāi shǐ zuò wéi tǐ yù yùn dòng xiàng mù hé jiàn shēn yú lè huó dòng pǔ jí qǐ lái 。
zhōng guó fēng zhēng yǐ xì zhú zhā chéng gǔ jià ,zài hú yǐ zhǐ huò juàn zhì zuò ér chéng 。fēng zhēng de zhǒng lèi zhǔ yào fēn wéi 「yìng chì 」hé 「ruǎn chì 」liǎng lèi 。「yìng chì 」fēng zhēng chì bǎng jiān yìng ,chī fēng dà ,fēi dé gāo 。「ruǎn chì 」fēng zhēng róu ruǎn ,fēi bú gāo ,dàn shì fēi dé yuǎn 。zài yàng shì shàng ,chú le chuán tǒng de qín 、shòu 、chóng 、yú wài ,jìn dài hái fā zhǎn chū le rén wù fēng zhēng děng xīn yàng shì 。zhōng guó dì yù liáo kuò 、fēng zhēng zuò wéi zhōng guó de chuán tǒng wén huà hé mín jiān yì shù ,zài cháng qī fā zhǎn guò chéng zhōng ,chǎn shēng chū xǔ duō jù yǒu bù tóng dì yù tè sè de zhǒng lèi 、yàng shì hé liú pài 。qí zhōng yǐ běi jīng 、tiān jīn 、shān dōng wéi fāng 、sì chuān 、guǎng dōng suǒ zhì de fēng zhēng zuì wéi zhù míng 。

Chinese Traditional Kite Craft(1) 中國傳統風箏(1)

Kites were invented by the Chinese people over 2000 years age. About in the 12th century, Chinese kite spread to the West and oriental and Western kite culture were formed after years of development. In the process, the traditional culture integrated with the kite craft, and finally formed the kite culture with unique characteristics.
Uses of kites have been changed several times in history. According to historical record, the kite was first used in military. In the mid Tang Dynasty ( 618-907 ), in which the society was stable and peaceful, the use of kites was gradually changed from military to entertainment. With the innovation of papermaking, the raw material of kite changed from silk to paper. Kites became popular among civilians with a richer variety of forms and reached the peak point in the Song Dynasty ( 960-1279 ). Participated by the literary, the making and the decoration of kites underwent great development. Kite making became a prefession due to a large demand.

風箏是中國人發明的,距今已經有2000餘年的歷史。大約在西元12世紀,中國風箏傳到了西方,此後經過不斷發展,逐漸形成了各具特色的東西方風箏文化。在風箏的發展過程中,具有悠久歷史的中國傳統文化開始與風箏工藝相融合,從而形成了獨具地方特色的風箏文化。
在歷史上,風箏的用途曾有過多次轉換。根據史書記載,風箏的最初功用是用於軍事。到了唐代(西元618-907年)中期,社會進入了繁榮穩定的發展階段,風箏的功用開始從軍事用途轉向娛樂,類型也豐富起來。宋代(西元960-1279年),風箏的流傳更為廣泛。由於當時文人的參加,風箏在紮制和裝飾上都有了很大的發展。同時由於社會上對風箏的需求,製作風箏發展為一種專門的職業。

zhōng guó chuán tǒng fēng zhēng (1)
fēng zhēng shì zhōng guó rén fā míng de ,jù jīn yǐ jīng yǒu 2000yú nián de lì shǐ 。dà yuē zài gōng yuán 12shì jì ,zhōng guó fēng zhēng chuán dào le xī fāng ,cǐ hòu jīng guò bú duàn fā zhǎn ,zhú jiàn xíng chéng le gè jù tè sè de dōng xī fāng fēng zhēng wén huà 。zài fēng zhēng de fā zhǎn guò chéng zhōng ,jù yǒu yōu jiǔ lì shǐ de zhōng guó chuán tǒng wén huà kāi shǐ yǔ fēng zhēng gōng yì xiāng róng hé ,cóng ér xíng chéng le dú jù dì fāng tè sè de fēng zhēng wén huà 。
zài lì shǐ shàng ,fēng zhēng de yòng tú céng yǒu guò duō cì zhuǎn huàn 。gēn jù shǐ shū jì zǎi ,fēng zhēng de zuì chū gōng yòng shì yòng yú jūn shì 。dào le táng dài (gōng yuán 618-907nián )zhōng qī ,shè huì jìn rù le fán róng wěn dìng de fā zhǎn jiē duàn ,fēng zhēng de gōng yòng kāi shǐ cóng jūn shì yòng tú zhuǎn xiàng yú lè ,lèi xíng yě fēng fù qǐ lái 。sòng dài (gōng yuán 960-1279nián ),fēng zhēng de liú chuán gèng wéi guǎng fàn 。yóu yú dāng shí wén rén de cān jiā ,fēng zhēng zài zhā zhì hé zhuāng shì shàng dōu yǒu le hěn dà de fā zhǎn 。tóng shí yóu yú shè huì shàng duì fēng zhēng de xū qiú ,zhì zuò fēng zhēng fā zhǎn wéi yī zhǒng zhuān mén de zhí yè 。