The Special Meaning of Numbers in China(2) 在中國,數字的特殊含義(2)

The popularity of auspicious or lucky number is related to the pursuit of harmony in names by, for instance, using the radical or character for “metal” to compensate for apparent lack of “metal” in the person, or using the “water” radical to make up a deficiency of same. Li Heng-lih points out the numbers can be divided in to sheng and cheng types, the former being one through five and the latter being six through ten. In this scheme, one and six are for water; two and seven are for fire; three and eight belong to wood; four and nine signify metal; and five and ten are for earth. If you divide them up by yin and yang, the negative and positive forces, one, three, five,seven, and nine are all yang, and two, four, six, eight , and ten are all yin.

吉祥數字、幸運數字的風行,與八字中缺金補金、缺水補水以求中和的造命觀念有關。李亨利指出,數字可分為生數(一、二、三、四、五)與成數(六、七、八、九、十)。其中一、六屬水,二、七屬火,三、八屬木,四、九屬金、五、十屬土。若以陰陽來分,一、三、五、七、九屬於陽,二、四、六、八、十屬陰。

zài zhōng guó ,shù zì de tè shū hán yì (2)
jí xiáng shù zì 、xìng yùn shù zì de fēng xíng ,yǔ bā zì zhōng quē jīn bǔ jīn 、quē shuǐ bǔ shuǐ yǐ qiú zhōng hé de zào mìng guān niàn yǒu guān 。lǐ hēng lì zhǐ chū ,shù zì kě fēn wéi shēng shù (yī 、èr 、sān 、sì 、wǔ )yǔ chéng shù (liù 、qī 、bā 、jiǔ 、shí )。qí zhōng yī 、liù shǔ shuǐ ,èr 、qī shǔ huǒ ,sān 、bā shǔ mù ,sì 、jiǔ shǔ jīn 、wǔ 、shí shǔ tǔ 。ruò yǐ yīn yáng lái fèn ,yī 、sān 、wǔ 、qī 、jiǔ shǔ yú yáng ,èr 、sì 、liù 、bā 、shí shǔ yīn 。

The Special Meaning of Numbers in China(1) 在中國,數字的特殊含義(1)

Yuan Chang-rue, head of the Anthropology Section at the Taiwan Provincial Museum, raises the theory of “ identity supernaturalism. ” He states that Chinese people believe that similar sounds can produce similar outcomes, so that “ identity of pronunciation ” has become the foundation of many allegedly beneficent numbers.
The vast influence of identical pronunciation: For example, in Cantonese the pronunciations of “eight” and “success” are very close, which makes the number significant for Cantonese. But for Fukienese it has no function.
Chinese have many taboos around the similarity of the sounds for “four” and “death”.
The study of names and the nine-boxed-paper, a very widespread belief among ordinary people, involves surmising a person’s personality and fate according to the number of stroke of the pen in the three characters of the same. In the West and Japan, a type of fortunetelling has been developed based on adding together the numbers of the year, month, and day of one’s birth, and using it to assess the person’s fate. Others are able to roughly guess a person’s personality from their favorite numbers.

臺灣省立博物館人類學組組長阮昌銳提出「模擬巫術」的說法,他表示,中國人相信相同的聲音會產生相同的效果,因此「諧音」成為許多所謂吉祥數字的依據。
像廣東人的「八」與「發」音很近,對廣東人就產生意義,但對閩南人卻起不了什麼作用。
中國人對「死」音近的「四」多忌諱。
民間流行的姓名學與九宮,是根據一個人的姓名筆劃數,來判斷人的個性和命途走勢。日本、歐美也發展出一套算命方法,以陽曆西元生日的年、月、日數字相加,最後得出一個數字,再根據他來判斷人命運。也有人能以某人偏好的數字,粗略判斷此人的個性。

zài zhōng guó ,shù zì de tè shū hán yì (1)

tái wān shěng lì bó wù guǎn rén lèi xué zǔ zǔ zhǎng ruǎn chāng ruì tí chū 「mó nǐ wū shù 」de shuō fǎ ,tā biǎo shì ,zhōng guó rén xiāng xìn xiāng tóng de shēng yīn huì chǎn shēng xiāng tóng de xiào guǒ ,yīn cǐ 「xié yīn 」chéng wéi xǔ duō suǒ wèi jí xiáng shù zì de yī jù 。
xiàng guǎng dōng rén de 「bā 」yǔ 「fā 」yīn hěn jìn ,duì guǎng dōng rén jiù chǎn shēng yì yì ,dàn duì mǐn nán rén què qǐ bú liǎo shí me zuò yòng 。
zhōng guó rén duì 「sǐ 」yīn jìn de 「sì 」duō jì huì 。
mín jiān liú xíng de xìng míng xué yǔ jiǔ gōng ,shì gēn jù yī gè rén de xìng míng bǐ huà shù ,lái pàn duàn rén de gè xìng hé mìng tú zǒu shì 。rì běn 、ōu měi yě fā zhǎn chū yī tào suàn mìng fāng fǎ ,yǐ yáng lì xī yuán shēng rì de nián 、yuè 、rì shù zì xiāng jiā ,zuì hòu dé chū yī gè shù zì ,zài gēn jù tā lái pàn duàn rén mìng yùn 。yě yǒu rén néng yǐ mǒu rén piān hào de shù zì ,cū luè pàn duàn cǐ rén de gè xìng 。

Lushan Mountain, World Scenic Location(5) 廬山,走向世界的中國名勝(5)

Religion: In the fourth century Monk Huiyuan first established the Jingtu ( Pure Land ) Sect in the Donglin Temple in the Lushan Mountain. During the fourth to thirteenth century, Lushan Mountain enjoyed a religious boom. The number of Buddhist and Taoist temples here once amounted to 500. In 1942, the International Conference of Buddhism Association was held in the mountain. Christian churches from over twenty countries also converged in the Lushan Mountain at the beginning of the twentieth century. Up to now, there still Buddhist temples, Taoist temples, Christian churches and Islam Mosques on it.
Education: the Bailudong ( the White Deer Cave ) Academy which ranks the first of the four most famous ancient academies in China was established on the Lushan Mountain. Zhu Xi, the famous educator and scholar of Li School ( a Confucian school of idealist philosophy ) in the South Song Dynasty, has delivered the academy, praising it “ a beautiful retreat without any noise from Secular Street. ”
Lushan is a thick book for the whole world to read!
A mystery riddle to answer!
An uncompleted painting to appreciate!

宗教名山:西元四世紀,高僧慧遠在廬山東林寺首創觀像念佛的淨土法門。從西元四世紀到十三世紀,廬山宗教興盛,寺廟、道觀一度多至500處。1942年,世界佛教聯合大會在廬山召開。本世紀初,20多個國家的基督教教會彙集廬山。至今,廬山仍有佛教、道教的寺廟、首觀多所,有伊斯蘭教、基督教、天主教等教派的教堂多所。
教育名山:中國古代四大書院之首——廬山白鹿洞書院就建在廬山。南宋著名理學家和教育家朱熹曾在這裏講學,稱讚這裏“無市井之喧,有山泉之勝”。
廬山是部厚厚的書,她要讓世界來欣讀;
廬山有著猜不完的謎,她要讓世界來參猜;
廬山是幅作不完的畫,她要讓世界來賞閱……

lú shān ,zǒu xiàng shì jiè de zhōng guó míng shèng(5)

zōng jiào míng shān :gōng yuán sì shì jì ,gāo sēng huì yuǎn zài lú shān dōng lín sì shǒu chuàng guān xiàng niàn fó de jìng tǔ fǎ mén 。cóng gōng yuán sì shì jì dào shí sān shì jì ,lú shān zōng jiào xìng shèng ,sì miào 、dào guàn yī dù duō zhì 500chù 。1942nián ,shì jiè fó jiào lián hé dà huì zài lú shān zhào kāi 。běn shì jì chū ,20duō gè guó jiā de jī dū jiào jiào huì huì jí lú shān 。zhì jīn ,lú shān réng yǒu fó jiào 、dào jiào de sì miào 、shǒu guàn duō suǒ ,yǒu yī sī lán jiào、jī dū jiào 、tiān zhǔ jiào děng jiào pài de jiāo táng duō suǒ 。
jiào yù míng shān :zhōng guó gǔ dài sì dà shū yuàn zhī shǒu ——lú shān bái lù dòng shū yuàn jiù jiàn zài lú shān 。nán sòng zhù míng lǐ xué jiā hé jiào yù jiā zhū xī céng zài zhè lǐ jiǎng xué ,chēng zàn zhè lǐ “wú shì jǐng zhī xuān ,yǒu shān quán zhī shèng ”。
lú shān shì bù hòu hòu de shū ,tā yào ràng shì jiè lái xīn dú ;
lú shān yǒu zhe cāi bú wán de mí ,tā yào ràng shì jiè lái cān cāi ;
lú shān shì fú zuò bú wán de huà ,tā yào ràng shì jiè lái shǎng yuè ……

Lushan Mountain, World Scenic Location(4) 廬山,走向世界的中國名勝(4)

Abundant animals and plants: Lushan has numerous species, including 33 kinds of beasts, 171 birds, over 2000 insects in which 33 are named after the mountain or first discovered there. Nine species are listed in the first grade of national protection and 21 the second. Covered with dense forest, Lushan Mountain is also rich in botanical resources. It has forest coverage of 76.6% and vegetation coverage of over 90%. Among 3000 kinds of plants, there are 2155 wild plants and 40 first discovered ij Lushan or named after it. There are also 5 kinds of plants in first-grade national protection and 36 in the second grade. Hu Xianxiao, an outstanding botanist, set up Lushan Botanical Garden on the mountain, the first formal botanical garden of higher plants of China.
Geological park: Lushan is a unique horst and fault -block mountain, displaying the primary process of crustal evolvement. There are 7 kinds of rocks and stratums named after the different place names of the Lushan Mountain. It is its various geological structures that make the mountain a natural geological museum. In the thirties of the twentieth century , the geologist Li Siguang constricted his Theory of the Fourth Glacial Epoch on his discovery of the traces of the fourth glacial epoch in Lushan Mountain.

動植物豐富:廬山有豐富的動物資源。獸類33種,鳥類171種;昆蟲2000餘種,以廬山(牯嶺)命名或在廬山首次發現的昆蟲33種;國家一級保護動物9種,二級保護動物21種。廬山森林茂密,植被豐富,森林覆蓋率76.6以上,植被覆蓋率達90%以上。植物3000餘種,其中野生動植物2155種,首次在廬山發現或廬山(牯嶺)命名的植物40種。有國家一級保護植物5種,二級保護植物36種。植物學家胡先嘯在廬山建立了中國第一座正規的高山植物園——廬山植物園。
地質公園:廬山是座獨特的地壘式斷塊山,出露明顯,展現出地殼演化的主要過程。以廬山地名命名的岩石、地層有7種。豐富的地質地貌,使廬山成了一座天然的地質博物館。上世紀三十年代,地質學家李四光在廬山發現中國第四紀冰川遺跡,創立了中國第四紀冰川學說。

lú shān ,zǒu xiàng shì jiè de zhōng guó míng shèng(4)

dòng zhí wù fēng fù :lú shān yǒu fēng fù de dòng wù zī yuán 。shòu lèi 33zhǒng ,niǎo lèi 171zhǒng ;kūn chóng 2000yú zhǒng ,yǐ lú shān (gǔ lǐng )mìng míng huò zài lú shān shǒu cì fā xiàn de kūn chóng 33zhǒng ;guó jiā yī jí bǎo hù dòng wù 9zhǒng ,èr jí bǎo hù dòng wù 21zhǒng 。lú shān sēn lín mào mì ,zhí bèi fēng fù ,sēn lín fù gài lǜ 76.6yǐ shàng ,zhí bèi fù gài lǜ dá 90%yǐ shàng 。zhí wù 3000yú zhǒng ,qí zhōng yě shēng dòng zhí wù 2155zhǒng ,shǒu cì zài lú shān fā xiàn huò lú shān (gǔ lǐng )mìng míng de zhí wù 40zhǒng 。yǒu guó jiā yī jí bǎo hù zhí wù 5zhǒng ,èr jí bǎo hù zhí wù 36zhǒng 。zhí wù xué jiā hú xiān xiào zài lú shān jiàn lì le zhōng guó dì yī zuò zhèng guī de gāo shān zhí wù yuán ——lú shān zhí wù yuán 。
dì zhì gōng yuán :lú shān shì zuò dú tè de dì lěi shì duàn kuài shān ,chū lù míng xiǎn ,zhǎn xiàn chū dì qiào yǎn huà de zhǔ yào guò chéng 。yǐ lú shān dì míng mìng míng de yán shí 、dì céng yǒu 7zhǒng 。fēng fù de dì zhì dì mào ,shǐ lú shān chéng le yī zuò tiān rán de dì zhì bó wù guǎn 。shàng shì jì sān shí nián dài ,dì zhì xué jiā lǐ sì guāng zài lú shān fā xiàn zhōng guó dì sì jì bīng chuān yí jì ,chuàng lì le zhōng guó dì sì jì bīng chuān xué shuō 。

Lushan Mountain, World Scenic Location(3) 廬山,走向世界的中國名勝(3)

Sight of human interest: Lushan has a long historical culture. It is the brithplace of Chinese scenic and pastoral poetry and landscape paintings. Since Hin Dynasty, more than fifteen hundred cultural peoples, including the famous poets of Li Po, Bai Juyi, Su Shi, and Wang Anshi have visited Lushan Mountain and written over four thousand poems, nine hundred cliff cutting and three hundred inscriptions to praise its beauty. The ancient canon of the Bailudong ( the White Deer Cave ) Academy of Lushan still maintains great signficance both at home and abroad. In the 1920s, it had temporally become the “ Summer capital ” of Kuomintang government whose leader, Chiang Kai-Shek, visited it over twenty times. Marshall, the special envoy of American president then, also visitied it eight times. In 1937, Chinese

Communist Party made a successful effort om bringing the rwo parites into cooperation in the anti-Japanese war. After the foundation of PRC , Mao Zedong climbed Lushan three times , presiding over three significant Conferences of the Central Committee of the CPC. Up to mow there over two hundred books on Lushan’s culture, nature, geology and meterology, twelve of which have been collected into the book named “ Complete Library in the Four Branches of Literature ” ( compiled in 1772-1782 at the order of Emperor Qianlong ). In the mountain, there are two national and nine provincial preservation units of cultural relics.

人文景觀:廬山的歷史文化源遠流長,廬山是中國田園詩的誕生地、中國山水詩的策源地、中國山水畫的發祥地。自晉代以來,李白、白居易、蘇軾、王安石等文人墨客留下了4000多首讚美廬山的詩詞歌賦和900多處摩崖石刻,碑刻300餘塊。廬山白鹿書院的教規至今在國內外有著深遠影響。20世紀20年代廬山成為了國民政府的「夏都」。蔣介石曾20餘次上廬山,美國總統特使馬歇爾八上廬山。1937年,中國共產黨在廬山促成了國共兩黨合作抗日。中華人民共和國成立以後,毛澤東三次登上廬山,主持召開了世人矚目的黨的三次重要會議。自古至今,有關廬山各種文化,自然、地質。氣象的專著有200多種,收入四庫全書的有12種。全山有國家級文物保護單位兩處,省級文物保護單位9處。

lú shān ,zǒu xiàng shì jiè de zhōng guó míng shèng(3)

rén wén jǐng guān :lú shān de lì shǐ wén huà yuán yuǎn liú zhǎng ,lú shān shì zhōng guó tián yuán shī de dàn shēng dì 、zhōng guó shān shuǐ shī de cè yuán dì 、zhōng guó shān shuǐ huà de fā xiáng dì 。zì jìn dài yǐ lái ,lǐ bái 、bái jū yì 、sū shì 、wáng ān shí děng wén rén mò kè liú xià le 4000duō shǒu zàn měi lú shān de shī cí gē fù hé 900duō chù mó yá shí kè ,bēi kè 300yú kuài 。lú shān bái lù shū yuàn de jiāo guī zhì jīn zài guó nèi wài yǒu zhe shēn yuǎn yǐng xiǎng 。20shì jì 20nián dài lú shān chéng wéi le guó mín zhèng fǔ de 「xià dū 」。jiǎng jiè shí céng 20yú cì shàng lú shān ,měi guó zǒng tǒng tè shǐ mǎ xiē ěr bā shàng lú shān 。1937nián ,zhōng guó gòng chǎn dǎng zài lú shān cù chéng le guó gòng liǎng dǎng hé zuò kàng rì 。zhōng huá rén mín gòng hé guó chéng lì yǐ hòu ,máo zé dōng sān cì dēng shàng lú shān ,zhǔ chí zhào kāi le shì rén zhǔ mù de dǎng de sān cì zhòng yào huì yì 。zì gǔ zhì jīn ,yǒu guān lú shān gè zhǒng wén huà ,zì rán 、dì zhì 。qì xiàng de zhuān zhù yǒu 200duō zhǒng ,shōu rù sì kù quán shū de yǒu 12zhǒng 。quán shān yǒu guó jiā jí wén wù bǎo hù dān wèi liǎng chù ,shěng jí wén wù bǎo hù dān wèi 9chù 。

Lushan Mountain, World Scenic Location(2) 廬山,走向世界的中國名勝(2)

With rich precipitation and pleasantly cool summer, Lushan Mountain possesses typical characteristics of the mountain climate. It has an average misty weather of 191 days per year, and an average temperature of 16.9 Celsius degree between July and September. Excellent weather and marvelous natural environment make the Mountain a world-known summer resort since the last year of 19th century.
Lushan is famous for its landscape, culture, education, religion and policits.
Natural landscapes: Towering peaks, steep cliffs, deep valleys and caves, strange rocks tell tourists the level of precipitation on Lushan; flying waterfalls, dashing streams, and running animals on the earth as well as moving clouds in the sky express its indefinable charming landscape. There are three man-made lakes on the mountain, Lulin, Ruqing and Lianhua. Caused by the varied climate, the tourists may also see rare scenes of “ Sea of Clouds ”, “ Misty Rains cover Poyang Lake ”, “ Misty Clouds around Lushan ”, “ Rime ”, “ Buddha’s Halo ”, “ Buddha’s Lamp in Tianchi Lake ” and “ Mirage ”.

廬山具有山地氣候的特徵,降水豐沛,夏季涼爽。年平均霧日191天,每年7-9月平均氣溫16.9度,良好的氣候條件和優美的自然環境,使廬山在十九世紀末就成為世界著名的避暑勝地。
廬山是一座風景名山、文化名山、教育名山、宗教名山、政治名山。
自然景觀:山峰聳峙,懸崖峭壁、奇石異洞,神峽邃穀,飛瀑流泉,奔雲走霧,奇險秀幻,奇特多姿。「高山出平湖」,山上有蘆林,如琴,蓮花三大人工湖。廬山氣象萬千,有雲海、鄱湖煙雨、廬山煙雲、霧凇、佛光、天地佛燈海市蜃樓等景觀。

lú shān ,zǒu xiàng shì jiè de zhōng guó míng shèng(2)

lú shān jù yǒu shān dì qì hòu de tè zhēng ,jiàng shuǐ fēng pèi ,xià jì liáng shuǎng 。nián píng jūn wù rì 191tiān ,měi nián 7-9yuè píng jūn qì wēn 16.9dù ,liáng hǎo de qì hòu tiáo jiàn hé yōu měi de zì rán huán jìng ,shǐ lú shān zài shí jiǔ shì jì mò jiù chéng wéi shì jiè zhù míng de bì shǔ shèng dì 。
lú shān shì yī zuò fēng jǐng míng shān 、wén huà míng shān 、jiāo yù míng shān 、zōng jiào  míng shān 、zhèng zhì míng shān 。
zì rán jǐng guān :shān fēng sǒng zhì ,xuán yá qiào bì 、qí shí yì dòng ,shén xiá suì gǔ ,fēi pù liú quán ,bēn yún zǒu wù ,qí xiǎn xiù huàn ,qí tè duō zī 。「gāo shān chū píng hú 」,shān shàng yǒu lú lín ,rú qín ,lián huā sān dà rén gōng hú 。lú shān qì xiàng wàn qiān ,yǒu yún hǎi 、pó hú yān yǔ 、lú shān yān yún 、wù sōng 、fó guāng 、tiān dì fó dēng hǎi shì shèn lóu děng jǐng guān 。

Lushan Mountain, World Scenic Location(1) 廬山,走向世界的中國名勝(1)

Lushan, a beautiful mountain in China, boasts two “ world gold medals ”: World Cultural Landscape and Global Geological Park.
Located in the northern part of Jiangxi Province, China, Lushan faces the Yangtze River to the north and is bordered on the south with the largest fresh water lake in China, Poyang Lake. It is known to the world for its grandeur, strange, perilous and beautiful scenery as it has been praised as “ the most beautiful place under heaven ”.
The area under Lushan Administrative Bureau is 46.6 square kilometers. The Great Hanyang Peak, the highest peak of the mountain, rises 1,474 meters above sea level. As a famous tourism spot, Lushan Mountain is espically famous for its rich cultural etos, unique geological sructure, varied natural climate, and rich ecological resources, all of which colorful seasons paintings of Lushan: a misty land in spring, a rain drop in summer, an intoxicated crimson in autumn and a white jade in winter. Su Shi, the famous poet in the Song dynasty, when visiting Lushan, once wrote, “ How could one tell what Lushan Mountain really looks like when ons is in the midst fo the mountain all along?”

廬山擁有兩塊耀眼的「世界金牌」:世界文化景觀,世界地質公園。
廬山位於江西省北部,南臨鄱陽湖,以「雄、奇、險、秀」馳名,素有「匡廬奇秀甲天下」之美稱。
廬山風景名勝區管理局轄46.6平方公里,主峰大漢陽峰,海拔1471米。濃厚的文化底蘊、奇特的地質地貌、變幻的自然氣候現象、豐富的生態資源,構成了廬山旅遊的特色,形成了「春山如夢,夏山如滴、秋山如醉、冬山如玉」之美景。宋代詩人蘇軾曾發出「不識廬山真面目,只緣身在此山中」的感慨。

lú shān ,zǒu xiàng shì jiè de zhōng guó míng shèng(1)

lú shān yōng yǒu liǎng kuài yào yǎn de 「shì jiè jīn pái 」:shì jiè wén huà jǐng guān ,shì jiè dì zhì gōng yuán 。
lú shān wèi yú jiāng xī shěng běi bù ,nán lín pó yáng hú ,yǐ 「xióng 、qí 、xiǎn 、xiù 」chí míng ,sù yǒu 「kuāng lú qí xiù jiǎ tiān xià 」zhī měi chēng 。
lú shān fēng jǐng míng shèng qū guǎn lǐ jú xiá 46.6píng fāng gōng lǐ ,zhǔ fēng dà hàn yáng fēng ,hǎi bá 1471mǐ 。nóng hòu de wén huà dǐ yùn 、qí tè de dì zhì dì mào 、biàn huàn de zì rán qì hòu xiàn xiàng 、fēng fù de shēng tài zī yuán ,gòu chéng le lú shān lǚ yóu de tè sè ,xíng chéng le 「chūn shān rú mèng ,xià shān rú dī 、qiū shān rú zuì 、dōng shān rú yù 」zhī měi jǐng 。sòng dài shī rén sū shì céng fā chū 「bú shí lú shān zhēn miàn mù ,zhī yuán shēn zài cǐ shān zhōng 」de gǎn kǎi 。

A Treasure-house of East Buddhist Art, A Bridge Pearl of World Culture Heritages(3) 東方佛教藝術的寶庫 世界文化遺產的明珠(3)

Longmen Grottoes, permeated with emotion of belief, with external shape full of foriegn style and abundant internal conception, are substantial reflections that ancient people have strong wishes and desires for the world, Chinese people’s spritual pursuit of happy life and outstanding creative ability can be explained thoroughly through the cultural landscape with history of more than one thousand years.

龍門石窟這些洋溢著信仰情感的文化遺存,其極具異域格調的外在形態和充斥著人文意識的內在涵養,是古代社會廣大人民群眾對現實世界充斥著訴求意願的物質折射。中華民族嚮往美好生活的精神追求和成效卓越的創造能力,透過這一遺響千載的人文景觀可以得到透徹的解說。

lóng mén shí kū zhè xiē yáng yì zhe xìn yǎng qíng gǎn de wén huà yí cún ,qí jí jù yì yù gé diào de wài zài xíng tài hé chōng chì zhe rén wén yì shí de nèi zài hán yǎng ,shì gǔ dài shè huì guǎng dà rén mín qún zhòng duì xiàn shí shì jiè chōng chì zhe sù qiú yì yuàn de wù zhì zhé shè 。zhōng huá mín zú xiàng wǎng měi hǎo shēng huó de jīng shén zhuī qiú hé chéng xiào zhuó yuè de chuàng zào néng lì ,tòu guò zhè yī yí xiǎng qiān zǎi de rén wén jǐng guān kě yǐ dé dào tòu chè de jiě shuō 。

A Treasure-house of East Buddhist Art, A Bridge Pearl of World Culture Heritages(2)東方佛教藝術的寶庫 世界文化遺產的明珠(2)

mong the caves of Northern Wei Dynasty, Guyang Cave, Middle Bingyang Cave, Lotus Cave and Shikusi Cave are representative ones of high value. Guyang Cave concentrated images from a group of imperial families and nobles in early period of moving the capital to Luoyang fo Northern Wei Dynasty, which typically reflected that Nothern Wei Dynasty believed in Buddhism. These stone-carved works embody of the style of gandharvas which firstly appeared after the art of buddhist caves was transmitted in to Luoyang. Therefore they are precious fusion of Chinese traditional culture and foreign civilization. The open niche, carved in accordance with the Avatamsaka Sutra, with the graceful, poised and grand Buddha Vairocana as the center, with a group of vivid sculptures around, has expressed the auspicious and prosperous artistic conception of Buddhist world incisively and vividly.
Because the magnificent and profound atmosphere of the grottoes affect people who wish happy life, Longmen zone with Buddhist images as principal part has attracted people to come with admiration. Today Xiangshan Temple on the East Hill at Longmen, with pines and cypresses around, was built by imperial court for burying the famous Indian Monk Dipeoluo in Wuzhou Period. During more than one hundred years since that time Xiangshan Temple had been so prosperous that the poet, Bai Juyi of the middle times of Tang Dynasty, well known home and abroad, male up “nine people of Xiangshan hill” with Monk Ruman, and so on, to compose and sing poetry as a hermit in the temple. In the sixth years of Huichang Bai Juyi died in his hometown, Ludaoli of Luoyang and was buried beside the pagoda for Monk Ruman in Xiangshan Temple. Today Bai Juyi’s tomb to the north of Xiangshan Temple is the best place for visitors to condole with the great poet.

在北魏時期雕鑿的眾多洞窟中,以古陽洞、賓陽中洞、蓮花洞和石窟寺這幾個洞窟最有代表的價值。其中古陽洞中的一批皇室貴族和宮廷大臣的造像,典型的反映出北魏王朝舉國佞佛的歷史情態。這些形制瑰異、琳琅滿目的石刻作品,代表著石窟寺藝術流入洛陽以後最早出現的一種犍陀羅佛教美術風格。因此,他們是中國傳統文化與城外文明交匯融合的珍貴記錄。
由於石窟雕刻恢弘壯觀、博大精深的藝術氣息感染著祈求人生幸福的芸芸眾生,以佛教造像為主體的龍門地區便吸引著眾多善男信女慕其名望流連忘返。今日龍門東山掩映在蒼松翠柏之中的香山寺即是武周時代封建王朝為安置印度來華高僧地婆柯羅遺身而建立的一座佛教寺院。在以後的一百多年中,香山寺法音綿曆、香火熾盛,以致中唐時代享譽中外的文化名人白居易竟以居士情結與如滿和尚等人結為「香山九老」唱酬於該寺的堂上林下、晨煙夕藹。會昌六年白居易卒於洛陽履道裏故居,遺體葬於香山寺如滿大師塔側。今日香山寺北側的白居易墓園,便是各地遊客憑吊這一歷史文化名人的最佳場所。

dōng fāng fó jiāo yì shù de bǎo kù shì jiè wén huà yí chǎn de míng zhū (2)

zài běi wèi shí qī diāo záo de zhòng duō dòng kū zhōng ,yǐ gǔ yáng dòng 、bīn yáng zhōng dòng 、lián huā dòng hé shí kū sì zhè jǐ gè dòng kū zuì yǒu dài biǎo de jià zhí 。qí zhōng gǔ yáng dòng zhōng de yī pī huáng shì guì zú hé gōng tíng dà chén de zào xiàng ,diǎn xíng de fǎn yìng chū běi wèi wáng cháo jǔ guó nìng fó de lì shǐ qíng tài 。zhè xiē xíng zhì guī yì 、lín láng mǎn mù de shí kè zuò pǐn ,dài biǎo zhe shí kū sì yì shù liú rù luò yáng yǐ hòu zuì zǎo chū xiàn de yī zhǒng jiān tuó luó fó jiāo měi shù fēng gé 。yīn cǐ ,tā men shì zhōng guó chuán tǒng wén huà yǔ chéng wài wén míng jiāo huì róng hé de zhēn guì jì lù 。
yóu yú shí kū diāo kè huī hóng zhuàng guān 、bó dà jīng shēn de yì shù qì xī gǎn rǎn zhe qí qiú rén shēng xìng fú de yún yún zhòng shēng ,yǐ fó jiāo zào xiàng wéi zhǔ tǐ de lóng mén dì qū biàn xī yǐn zhe zhòng duō shàn nán xìn nǚ mù qí míng wàng liú lián wàng fǎn 。jīn rì lóng mén dōng shān yǎn yìng zài cāng sōng cuì bǎi zhī zhōng de xiāng shān sì jí shì wǔ zhōu shí dài fēng jiàn wáng cháo wèi ān zhì yìn dù lái huá gāo sēng dì pó kē luó yí shēn ér jiàn lì de yī zuò fó jiāo sì yuàn 。zài yǐ hòu de yī bǎi duō nián zhōng ,xiāng shān sì fǎ yīn mián lì 、xiāng huǒ chì shèng ,yǐ zhì zhōng táng shí dài xiǎng yù zhōng wài de wén huà míng rén bái jū yì jìng yǐ jū shì qíng jié yǔ rú mǎn hé shàng děng rén jié wéi 「xiāng shān jiǔ lǎo 」chàng chóu yú gāi sì de táng shàng lín xià 、chén yān xī ǎi 。huì chāng liù nián bái jū yì zú yú luò yáng lǚ dào lǐ gù jū ,yí tǐ zàng yú xiāng shān sì rú mǎn dà shī tǎ cè 。jīn rì xiāng shān sì běi cè de bái jū yì mù yuán ,biàn shì gè dì yóu kè píng dìao zhè yī lì shǐ wén huà míng rén de zuì jiā chǎng suǒ 。

A Treasure-house of East Buddhist Art, A Bridge Pearl of World Culture Heritages(1)東方佛教藝術的寶庫 世界文化遺產的明珠(1)

Longmen Grottoes are distributed on the cliffs along the banks of Yihe River, 13 kilometers south of Luoyang. With an environment of natural beauty, it was promulgated one of the first group of cultural relic units for special protection by the State Council in 1961. In 1982 it was promulgated scenery zones at the national level by the State Council. In November 2000 Longmen Grottoes was inscribed on world Heritage List by UNESCO.
The main larger caves of Northern Wei Dynasty are Guyang Cave, Middle Bingyang Cave, Lotus Cave, Huoshao Cave, Weizi Cave, Shikusi Cave, Putai Cave and Lu Cave, etc. And the main larger caves of Tang Dynasty are Southern Bingyang Cave, Northern Bingyang Cave, Qianxisi Cave, Jingshansi Cave, Ten-thousand Buddha Cave, Shuangyao Cave, Huijian Cave, Grand Buddha Vairocana Niche, Three Leigutau Cave, Gaopingjunwang Cave, Kanjingsi Cave, Tangzi Cave, Jinan Cave, Jingtutang Cave and Moyasanfokan Niche, etc.

龍門石窟位於洛陽市南郊13公里處的伊闕峽谷間,這裏青山綠水,早在1961年即被國務院公佈為全國第一批重點文物保護單位,1982年被國務院公佈為全國第一批國家級風景名勝區。2000年11月,聯合國教科文組織將龍門石窟列入《世界文化遺產名錄》。
龍門北魏時期的大型洞窟,主要有古陽洞、賓陽中洞、蓮花洞、火燒洞、魏字洞、石窟寺及普泰洞、路洞等等。而唐代的主要洞窟則有賓陽南洞、賓陽北洞、潛溪寺、敬善寺、萬佛洞、雙窯、惠簡洞、大盧舍那像龕、擂鼓臺三洞、高平郡王洞、看經寺、唐字洞、極南洞、淨土堂和麻崖三佛龕等等。

dōng fāng fó jiāo yì shù de bǎo kù shì jiè wén huà yí chǎn de míng zhū (1)
lóng mén shí kū wèi yú luò yáng shì nán jiāo 13gōng lǐ chù de yī què xiá gǔ jiān ,zhè lǐ qīng shān lǜ shuǐ ,zǎo zài 1961nián jí bèi guó wù yuàn gōng bù wéi quán guó dì yī pī zhòng diǎn wén wù bǎo hù dān wèi ,1982nián bèi guó wù yuàn gōng bù wéi quán guó dì yī pī guó jiā jí fēng jǐng míng shèng qū 。2000nián 11yuè ,lián hé guó jiào kē wén zǔ zhī jiāng lóng mén shí kū liè rù 《shì jiè wén huà yí chǎn míng lù 》。

lóng mén běi wèi shí qī de dà xíng dòng kū ,zhǔ yào yǒu gǔ yáng dòng 、bīn yáng zhōng dòng 、lián huā dòng 、huǒ shāo dòng 、wèi zì dòng 、shí kū sì jí pǔ tài dòng 、lù dòng děng děng 。ér táng dài de zhǔ yào dòng kū zé yǒu bīn yáng nán dòng 、bīn yáng běi dòng 、qián xī sì 、jìng shàn sì 、wàn fó dòng 、shuāng yáo 、huì jiǎn dòng 、dà lú shě nà xiàng kān 、lèi gǔ tái sān dòng 、gāo píng jun4 wáng dòng 、kàn jīng sì 、táng zì dòng 、jí nán dòng 、jìng tǔ táng hé má yá sān fó kān děng děng 。