The Palace Museum-The Forbidden City as the Emperor’s Residence 故宮博物院——作為皇帝住所的紫禁城

The Palace Museum is the world—famous Forbidden City where once emperors, empresses and their families lived. The Forbidden city got this name because in the feudal society ,the emperors had supreme power, so his residence was certainly a forbidden palace. And the whole palace is his residence. The Forbidden Palace is divided into two parts. The southern section, or the Outer Court was for the emperor to exercise his power over the nation, and the northern part,or the Inner Court was for his royal family. The buildings and designs of the Forbidden City are the peak of Chinese traditional architecture, not only scientific but also suitable for living. Some small animals sculptures placed on the tops of the buildings are mascots and somes are symbols of power. There are many yellow things in the Forbidden City, because yellow is the symbol of the royal family.

故宮博物院是以前皇帝、皇后和皇室家族居住的舉世聞名的紫禁城。紫禁城這個名字的由來,是因為在封建社會,帝王擁有至高無上的權利,他的住處是為禁地。這整個宮殿都是他的住所。紫禁城分為兩個部分。南部,或者叫外院是皇帝實施權利管理國家的地方,北部,或者叫內院是皇家的住所。紫禁城的建築和設計達到了中國傳統建築的頂峰,不僅科學而且很適合居住。有些放在建築物頂部的小動物雕塑有一些是吉祥物,有一些是權勢的象徵。紫禁城有很多黃色的東西,黃色是皇族的象徵。

gù gōng bó wù yuàn ——zuò wéi huáng dì zhù suǒ de zǐ jìn chéng

gù gōng bó wù yuàn shì yǐ qián huáng dì 、huáng hòu hé huáng shì jiā zú jū zhù de jǔ shì wén míng de zǐ jìn chéng 。zǐ jìn chéng zhè gè míng zì de yóu lái ,shì yīn wéi zài fēng jiàn shè huì ,dì wáng yōng yǒu zhì gāo wú shàng de quán lì ,tā de zhù chù shì wéi jìn dì 。zhè zhěng gè gōng diàn dōu shì tā de zhù suǒ 。zǐ jìn chéng fèn wéi liǎng gè bù fèn 。nán bù ,huò zhě jiào wài yuàn shì huáng dì shí shī quán lì guǎn lǐ guó jiā de dì fāng ,běi bù ,huò zhě jiào nèi yuàn shì huáng jiā de zhù suǒ 。zǐ jìn chéng de jiàn zhù hé shè jì dá dào le zhōng guó chuán tǒng jiàn zhù de dǐng fēng ,bú jǐn kē xué ér qiě hěn shì hé jū zhù 。yǒu xiē fàng zài jiàn zhù wù dǐng bù de xiǎo dòng wù diāo sù yǒu yī xiē shì jí xiáng wù ,yǒu yī xiē shì quán shì de xiàng zhēng 。zǐ jìn chéng yǒu hěn duō huáng sè de dōng xī ,huáng sè shì huáng zú de xiàng zhēng 。

Personal Network in China-what is “guanxi” and “renqing” 中國的人際關係網——什麼是「關係」和「人情」

Throughout much of China’s history, guanxi has been and remains a deep seated concept that lies at the core of Chinese society and the relationship between the people within it. Simply put, guanxi can be seen as who you know and what they perceive to be their obligation to you.
In China, an established network of quality contacts can help accomplish almost anything, and thus having good guanxi is a very powerful asset.
Closely intertwined with “guanxi” is “renqing” an important vehicle in Chinese social exchanges. “renqing” which literally translate as human sentiment or human emotion is defined by one western scholar as “covers not only sentiment but also its social expressions such as the offering of congratulations, or condolences or the making gifts on appropriate occasions”. The rules of “renqing” in Chinese society goes as follows: “If you have received a drop of beneficence from other people, you should return to them a fountain of beneficence”.
A Chinese who has done a favor for you automatically feels that he or she is owned a favor from you in return. Actually “renqing” follows Confucian notion of reciprocity. There are many Chinese expressions that are associated wirh “renqing” , such as giving somebody a “renqing” ( song renqing ) owing somebody a “renqing” ( qian renqing ) ect. .

貫穿中國的歷史,關係一直是中國社會人際關係深層的一個核心。簡單地說,關係可以看作是你認識的人和他們對你的職責。
在中國,建立起優良的關係網幾乎可以幫助你完成任何事情,所以有好的關係是非常有利的資源。
與「關係」緊密相關的是人情,中國人社交的一個重要工具。「人情」字面上可以理解成人類的情感。這種情感被一個西方學者定義成不僅僅包括情感,還包括社會表情例如表達祝賀、安慰或在恰當的場合做禮物。中國社會的人情原則是這樣的:「滴水之恩當湧泉相報」。
一個主動幫你忙的中國人會覺得你欠了他什麼。實際上「人情」就是孔子所說的禮尚往來,互惠主義。中國俗語裏有些與人情相關的表達,例如「送人情」和「欠人情」。

zhōng guó de rén jì guān xì wǎng——shén me shì 「guān xì 」hé 「rén qíng 」

guàn chuān zhōng guó de lì shǐ ,guān xì yī zhí shì zhōng guó shè huì rén jì guān xì shēn céng de yī gè hé xīn 。jiǎn dān de shuō ,guān xì kě yǐ kàn zuò shì nǐ rèn shí de rén hé tā men duì nǐ de zhí zé 。
zài zhōng guó ,jiàn lì qǐ yōu liáng de guān xì wǎng jǐ hū kě yǐ bāng zhù nǐ wán chéng rèn hé shì qíng ,suǒ yǐ yǒu hǎo de guān xì shì fēi cháng yǒu lì de zī yuán 。
yǔ 「guān xì 」jǐn mì xiàng guān de shì rén qíng ,zhōng guó rén shè jiāo de yī gè zhòng yào gōng jù 。「rén qíng 」zì miàn shàng kě yǐ lǐ jiě chéng rén lèi de qíng gǎn 。zhè zhǒng qíng gǎn bèi yī gè xī fāng xué zhě dìng yì chéng bú jǐn jǐn bāo kuò qíng gǎn ,hái bāo kuò shè huì biǎo qíng lì rú biǎo dá zhù hè 、ān wèi huò zài qià dāng de chǎng hé zuò lǐ wù 。zhōng guó shè huì de rén qíng yuán zé shì zhè yàng de :「dī shuǐ zhī ēn dāng yǒng quán xiàng bào 」。
yī gè zhǔ dòng bāng nǐ máng de zhōng guó rén huì jué dé nǐ qiàn le tā shí me 。shí jì shàng 「rén qíng 」jiù shì kǒng zǐ suǒ shuō de lǐ shàng wǎng lái ,hù huì zhǔ yì 。zhōng jué sú yǔ lǐ yǒu xiē yǔ rén qíng xiāng guān de biǎo dá ,lì rú 「sòng rén qíng 」hé 「qiàn rén qíng 」。

Chinese Name Culture 中國的姓名文化

A majority of countries in Eastern Asia adopted the Chinese naming system. A Chinese name is writted with the family name (surname or last name ) first and the given name next, therefore “John Smith” as a Chinese name would be “ Smith John”. Today, there are over 700 different Chinese family names, but as few as twenty cover a majority of Chinese people. The variety in Chinese family names therefore depends greatly on given names rather than family names.The great majority of Chinese family names have only one character, but there are a few with two.
So it is inevitable that Chinese family names are written first will confuse those cultures the family name usually comes last. Chinese women in the mainland usually retain their maiden names as their family name, rather than adopting their husband’s. Children usually inherit the father’s family name. However there is the practice of married women taking on the husband’s surname as part of their full name. Historically, it was considered taboo to marry someone with the same family name–even if there is no direct relationship between those concerned–though in recent decades this has no longer been frowned upon.
Chinese personal names also reflect periods of history. For example, many Chinese born during the Culture Revolution have “revolutionary” names such as strong country (Qiang Guo) or eastern wind (Dong Feng).

東亞的大多數國家都採用漢語的命名體系。漢語名字是姓在前,名在後,所以「約翰・史密斯」寫成中文就是「史密斯・約翰」。迄今為止,大約有超過700個中國姓,但是只有20多個是被大多數中國人常用的。因而中國人名字裏的多樣性很大部分取決於名字而不是姓氏。大多數中國姓都是單字,有少部分也有兩個單字的。
因此不可避免的,中國姓在前的傳統通常會與那些姓在後的文化混淆。中國大陸的婦女通常會保留他們的娘家姓,而不是襲用丈夫的姓。孩子通常會沿襲父親的姓。然而也有婚後的婦女將夫家姓作為她們名字的一部分的情況。長久以來,兩個姓氏相同的人是不能結婚的——即使他們兩人沒有直接的關係——近幾十年來這種禁忌也慢慢被人接受了。
中國人的名字通常還會反映特定的歷史時期。例如,許多在文化大革命時期出生的中國人都有一些「革命意味」的名字,例如「強國」或「東風」。

zhōng guó de xìng míng wén huà

dōng yà de dà duō shù guó jiā dōu cǎi yòng hàn yǔ de mìng míng tǐ xì 。hàn yǔ míng zì shì xìng zài qián ,míng zài hòu ,suǒ yǐ “yuē hàn ・shǐ mì sī ”xiě chéng zhōng wén jiù shì “shǐ mì sī ・yuē hàn ”。qì jīn wéi zhǐ ,dà yuē yǒu chāo guò 700gè zhōng guó xìng ,dàn shì zhī yǒu 20duō gè shì bèi dà duō shù zhōng guó rén cháng yòng de 。yīn ér zhōng guó rén míng zì lǐ de duō yàng xìng hěn dà bù fèn qǔ jué yú míng zì ér bú shì xìng shì 。dà duō shù zhōng guó xìng dōu shì dān zì ,yǒu shǎo bù fèn yě yǒu liǎng gè dān zì de 。
yīn cǐ bú kě bì miǎn de ,zhōng guó xìng zài qián de chuán tǒng tōng cháng huì yǔ nà xiē xìng zài hòu de wén huà hún xiáo 。zhōng guó dà lù de fù nǚ tōng cháng huì bǎo liú tā men de niáng jiā xìng ,ér bú shì xí yòng zhàng fū de xìng 。hái zǐ tōng cháng huì yán xí fù qīn de xìng 。rán ér yě yǒu hūn hòu de fù nǚ jiāng fū jiā xìng zuò wéi tā men míng zì de yī bù fèn de qíng kuàng 。cháng jiǔ yǐ lái ,liǎng gè xìng shì xiàng tóng de rén shì bú néng jié hūn de ——jí shǐ tā men liǎng rén méi yǒu zhí jiē de guān xì ——jìn jǐ shí nián lái zhè zhǒng jìn jì yě màn màn bèi rén jiē shòu le 。
zhōng guó rén de míng zì tōng cháng hái huì fǎn yìng tè dìng de lì shǐ shí qī 。lì rú ,xǔ duō zài wén huà dà gé mìng shí qī chū shēng de zhōng guó rén dōu yǒu yī xiē “gé mìng yì wèi ”de míng zì ,lì rú “qiáng guó ”huò “dōng fēng ”。

實用英文短信縮寫,你看懂了嗎(二)?

上一章節的內容不知道大家掌握得怎麼樣了呢,現在為大家奉上第二部分,希望大家繼續加油!


Part B
B2W – Back to work 回去上班
BF – Boyfriend 男朋友
BG – Background 背景
B4 – Before 之前
B4N – Bye for now 先這樣
BAU – Business as usual 正常營業
BBIAB – Be back in a bit 馬上回來
BBIAM – Be back in a minute 馬上回來
BBIAS – Be back in a second 馬上回來
BBL – Be back later 稍後回來
BBQ – Barbeque 燒烤
BBS – Be back soon 很快回來
BBT – Be back tomorrow 明天回來
BCOS – Because 因為
BDAY/ B-DAY – Birthday 生日
BF – Best friend 最好的朋友
BFF – Best friend forever 永遠的好朋友
BFFL – Best friend for life 一輩子的好朋友
BFFLNMW – Best friends for life, no matter what 不管怎樣都是一輩子的朋友
BFFN – Best friend for now 現在最好的朋友
BHL – Be home late 晚一些回家
BIF – Before I forget 在我忘記之前
BION – Believe it or not 信不信由你
BLNT – Better luck next time 祝下次好運
BM – Bite me 怎麼招?(不是咬我的意思)
BME – Based on my experience 根據我的經驗
BM&Y – Between me and you 你我之間
BN – Bad news 壞消息
BOL – Best of luck 祝你好運
BOYF – Boyfriend 男朋友
BRB – Be right back 馬上回來
BR – Best regards 最好的祝福
BRBB – Be right back babe 馬上回來,親
BRNC – Be right back, nature calls 馬上回來,去上廁所
BRD – Bored 無聊
BTW – By the way 順便說一下

To be continued… 未完待續…

The Great Wall——the top of the”New Seven Wonders of the World” 長城——「世界新七大奇跡」之首

The Great Wall meanders from east to weat for about 6,000 kilometers or 12,000 li. That’s why we call it in Chinese “Wan Li Chang Cheng”,which literally means”Ten Thousand Li Long Wall”.

Construction of the Wall first began during te Warring States period about 2,500 years ago. Some kingdoms built huge walls hoping to protect their territories. When Qin Shihuang or the First Emperor unified China in 221B.C. ,he decided to have the various sections of the walls linked up and also extended. From that we got the Great Wall. But the Qin Great Wall hasn’t got much left today, In the subsequent dynasties, the Great Wall was rebuilt many times. The last massive rebuilting of the Great Wall was in Ming Dynasty. The Great Wall we see at Badaling was rebuilt then.

Those towers on the wall spaced at regular distances from one another are beacon fire towers. In ancient times, if attacked by enemies the guards would set off smoke in the day-time and bonfire at night to alarm troops stations along the wall.

The Great Wall if very steep and the surface is a little slippy. For ladies, please wear no high-heeled shoes.

長城從東到西蜿蜒約6,000公里,也就是12,000里。這就是為什麼我們叫它「萬里長城」了,因為它字面上的意思就是「一萬里長的城牆」。長城最早修建於約2,500年前的戰國時期。一些帝王建造它是為了保護疆域。秦始皇於西元前221年統一中國後,決定把這些不同的城牆連起來並加長,於是我們便有了長城。秦長城現在保留不多。在後來的各個朝代長城又多次被修建。長城的最後一次大規模重建是在明朝。我們看到的八達嶺長城就是那時候建成的。

城牆上每隔一段距離就有的塔是烽火臺。古代的時候,如果遭到敵人的攻擊,臺上的哨兵就會在白天放煙霧,在晚上點野火以警告駐守城牆邊的部隊。
長城非常陡峭,臺階表面也非常滑,女士請不要穿高跟鞋。

cháng chéng ——「shì jiè xīn qī dà qí jì 」zhī shǒu

cháng chéng cóng dōng dào xī wān yán yuē 6,000gōng lǐ ,yě jiù shì 12,000lǐ 。zhè jiù shì wèi shén me wǒ men jiào tā 「wàn lǐ cháng chéng 」le ,yīn wéi tā zì miàn shàng de yì sī jiù shì 「yī wàn lǐ cháng de chéng qiáng 」。cháng chéng zuì zǎo xiū jiàn yú yuē 2,500nián qián de zhàn guó shí qī 。yī xiē dì wáng jiàn zào tā shì wéi le bǎo hù jiāng yù 。qín shǐ huáng yú xī yuán qián 221nián tǒng yī zhōng guó hòu ,jué dìng bǎ zhè xiē bú tóng de chéng qiáng lián qǐ lái bìng jiā zhǎng ,yú shì wǒ men biàn yǒu le cháng chéng 。qín cháng chéng xiàn zài bǎo liú bú duō 。zài hòu lái de gè gè cháo dài cháng chéng yòu duō cì bèi xiū jiàn 。cháng chéng de zuì hòu yī cì dà guī mó chóng jiàn shì zài míng cháo 。wǒ men kàn dào de bā dá lǐng cháng chéng jiù shì nà shí hòu jiàn chéng de 。

chéng qiáng shàng měi gé yī duàn jù lí jiù yǒu de tǎ shì fēng huǒ tái 。gǔ dài de shí hòu ,rú guǒ zāo dào dí rén de gōng jī ,tái shàng de shào bīng jiù huì zài bái tiān fàng yān wù ,zài wǎn shàng diǎn yě huǒ yǐ jǐng gào zhù shǒu chéng qiáng biān de bù duì 。
cháng chéng fēi cháng dǒu qiào ,tái jiē biǎo miàn yě fēi cháng huá ,nǚ shì qǐng bú yào chuān gāo gēn xié 。

實用英文短信縮寫,你看懂了嗎(一)?

最近在為學生上課時,發現他們對於英文的短信縮寫十分感興趣,的確,使用一些約定俗成的縮寫不但可以節省時間,也避免了因為打錯字而來來回回修改的麻煩,下面就是一些非常實用的縮寫,我們一起來學習下吧。

Part A

AAP – Always a pleasure 令人愉快
AAR – At any rate 至少,無論如何
AB/ ABT – About 關於
ABT2 – about to 即將
ACC – Anyone can come 誰都能來
ACK – Acknowledgement 感謝,承認
ADBB – All done, bye-bye 好了,再見
ADD/ ADR – Address 地址
ADMIN – Administrator 管理員
AEAP – As early as possible 儘快
AFAIC – As far as I’m concerned 就我而言
AFAIK – As far as I know 據我所知
AFAIUI – As far as I understand it 就我的理解而言
AFAP – As far as possible 儘量
AH – At home 在家
AISB – As it should be 應當
AISB – As I said before 像我之前說的
AISI – As I see it 我認為
AKA – Also known as 也叫作,又稱
ALOL – Actually laughing out loud 正在大聲笑
AMAP – As much as possible 越多越好
AMBW – All my best wishes 最好的祝願
AML – All my love 我全部的愛
AMOF – As a matter of fact 事實是
APP – Application 應用程式
AQAP – As quick as possible 越快越好
ATB – All the Best 一切順利,萬事如意
ATM – At the moment 此刻,當時
ATEOTD – At the end of the day 最後
ASAP – As soon as possible 儘快
AWESO – Awesome 真棒
AYDY – Are you done yet? 你完事了沒?
AYEC – At your earliest convenience 儘早
AYOR – At your own risk 由自己負責
AYSOS – Are you stupid or something? 你是傻了還是怎麼了?
AYS – Are you serious? 你說真的嗎?
AYT – Are you there? 你在嗎?
AYTMTB – And you’re telling me this because 你跟我說這個是因為……
AYW – As you wish 如你所願
AZN – Asian 亞洲人

To be continued… 未完待續…

廣東話笑話 3

劉野先生啱五金由內地嚟深圳做嘢,有一日搭大巴上廣州,一坐低,隔離嗰位先生就用白話好大聲噉同佢打招呼:“早晨!”劉野亦都用廣州話答佢:“早晨!”嗰位先生又用白話問佢:“食咗飯未吖?”劉野答:“食咗。”劉野啱啱學識講幾句廣州話,驚嗰位先生在問落去自己唔識答,於是乎就對嗰位先生講:“早唞!”見嗰位先生面紅紅噉望住自己冇出聲,劉野即刻咪埋眼詐諦休息。隔冇幾耐,嗰位拍咗一下劉野嘅膊頭,用普通話問佢,“早唞”系乜嘢意思,劉野卒之忍唔住笑,心惗,原來佢都只係識少少。。。

廣東話笑話 2

我見女同事讀緊幼稚園嘅女女好趣緻,就特登行埋去問佢:“你媽咪貴姓吖?”佢話:“佢小姓白,大名叫做雪,我叫佢做白雪雪。”我又問:“噉你爹哋又點稱呼呢?”嗰細路女好大聲噉答我:“佢叫做老公。”

廣東話笑話 1

阿森系一個細路仔,佢父母教佢對人講嘢要有禮貌,若果人客話姓張(章),你就要問佢系弓長張定係立早章。森仔記住咗呢啲說話。有一日,有位人客嚟搵佢父母,佢就問:“你貴姓吖?”人客讚佢好乖,之後話系姓李嘅。森仔就問人客:“系弓長李定係立早李吖?”人客就話:“豈有此理(李)!”

all和both的用法 11

all和both的用法:
all指三者或三者以上的人或物,用來代替或修飾可數名詞;也可用來代替或修飾不可數名詞。
both指兩個人或物,用來代替或修飾可數名詞。 all和both在句子中作主語、賓語、表語、定語等。如:I know all of the four British students in their school.(他們學校里四個英國學生我全認識) / –Would you like this one or that one? –Both.(你要這個還是那個?兩個都要。)
all和both既可以修飾名詞(all/both+(the)+名詞),也可以獨立使用,採用“all/both + of the +名詞(複數)”的形式,其中的of可以省略。如:All (of) (the) boys are naughty.(是男孩都調皮)