Chinese Drinking-Chinese Liquor 中國酒文化——白酒

Chines liquor, which is one of the six world-famous varieties of spirits ( the other five being brandy, whisky, rum, vodka and gin ), has a more complicated production method and can be made from various staples-broomcorn, corn, rice and wheat. Opinions regarding the origin if this liquor are divided but in the main there four possibilities varying from the Eastern Han Dynasty ( 25-220 ), Tang Dynasty ( 618-907 ), Song Dynasty ( 960-1297 ) to the Yuan Dynasty ( 1271-1368 ), but most people tend to agree that it actually dates from the Song Dynasty. Base on the long tradition, today’s distillers create a spirit that is crystal clear, aromatic and tasty. The most famous brand is Maotai and this holds the title of the “National Liquor”. There are other excellent brands also such as Wuliangye and Luzhou Tequ. To facilitate its slow maturing process, the spirit is stored for 4-5 years, over which time the full fragrance and flavor develop.

中國白酒是世界六大名酒之一(其他五種為白蘭地、威士忌、朗姆、伏特加和杜松子酒),有著複雜的製造工藝以及豐富多樣的製作原料——高粱、玉米、大米和小麥等。白酒起源的具體時間說法不一,有漢代起源說,唐代起源說、宋代起源說和元代起源說,其中,得到普遍共識的還是白酒的宋代起源說。也正是經過如此長久的歷史沉澱,中國的傳統蒸餾白酒才能逐步發展成為現今聞名於世的白酒,其清澈純淨、馥鬱芳香無可比擬。最具盛譽的白酒還要數國酒「茅臺」,另外中國還有很多其他的優質白酒品牌,例如「五糧液」、「瀘州特曲」等。白酒一般要窖藏4-5年,以便充分發酵,使其味道更加地濃郁。

zhōng guó jiǔ wén huà ——bái jiǔ
zhōng guó bái jiǔ shì shì jiè liù dà míng jiǔ zhī yī (qí tā wǔ zhǒng wéi bái lán dì 、wēi shì jì 、lǎng mǔ 、fú tè jiā hé dù sōng zǐ jiǔ ),yǒu zhe fù zá de zhì zào gōng yì yǐ jí fēng fù duō yàng de zhì zuò yuán liào ——gāo liáng 、yù mǐ 、dà mǐ hé xiǎo mài děng 。bái jiǔ qǐ yuán de jù tǐ shí jiān shuō fǎ bù yī ,yǒu hàn dài qǐ yuán shuō ,táng dài qǐ yuán shuō 、sòng dài qǐ yuán shuō hé yuán dài qǐ yuán shuō ,qí zhōng ,dé dào pǔ biàn gòng shí de hái shì bái jiǔ de sòng dài qǐ yuán shuō 。yě zhèng shì jīng guò rú cǐ cháng jiǔ de lì shǐ chén diàn ,zhōng guó de chuán tǒng zhēng liú bái jiǔ cái néng zhú bù fā zhǎn chéng wéi xiàn jīn wén míng yú shì de bái jiǔ ,qí qīng chè chún jìng 、fù yù fāng xiāng wú kě bǐ nǐ 。zuì jù shèng yù de bái jiǔ hái yào shǔ guó jiǔ 「máo tái 」,lìng wài zhōng guó hái yǒu hěn duō qí tā de yōu zhì bái jiǔ pǐn pái ,lì rú 「wǔ liáng yè 」、「lú zhōu tè qū 」děng 。bái jiǔ yī bān yào jiào cáng 4-5nián ,yǐ biàn chōng fèn fā jiào ,shǐ qí wèi dào gèng jiā de nóng yù 。

Different Culture Connotation of Dragon 不同文化背景下「龍」的涵義

Dragon, an animal only found in the fairy tale, stands for atrocious and evil in English. However, in Chinese, dragon is ananimal that can give people blessedness.
In English, dragon stands for the Datan in Bible. The gragonish woman also is calledn “dragon” in English. For example: She is a real dragon, you had better keep away from her. We can see westerners do not like dragon at all from these examples. However, it is opposite in Chinese. Dragon stand for propitious, authority, and rareness in Chinese. In feudal socity, the dragon stands for the monarch.
Nowadays, dragon still has a high posotion in Chinese mind and they think they the generation of dragon ( Dragon stands for propitious in China ). Dragon becomes a national totem. There are a lot of idioms about dragon in China. These idioms are all similar.
For example: “Wang Zi Cheng Long”(to hope one’s son grous up to a man as able as a dragon.)which sounds ridiculous to English-speaking people;“Long Zi Long Sun”(the sons and grandsons of dragon), which are usually used to call oneself by Chinese people.

龍,是只在神話故事中出現的動物,在英文中是邪惡的代表。然而中國文化裏,龍是為人類造福的動物。
在英語文化中,龍在聖經中是撒旦的化身。一個「潑婦」在英語裏也用「龍」這個詞來形容。例如:她真是一個潑婦,你最好離她遠點。從以上所有這些例子中我們可以看出西方人不喜歡龍。然而在中國文化中,剛好相反,龍是吉祥,權威和稀貴的象徵。在封建社會,龍是君主帝王的象徵。
現在,龍在中國人的心目中依然有很崇高的地位,他們認為他們是龍的傳人。龍成為了民族圖騰。在中國有很多關於龍的成語。這些成語都非常相似。
例如:「望子成龍」(即希望一個人的兒子有光明的前途)對英語文化背景的人來說卻很荒唐。中國人常用「龍子龍孫」來形容自己。

bù tóng wén huà bèi jǐng xià 「lóng 」de hán yì

lóng ,shì zhǐ zài shén huà gù shì zhōng chū xiàn de dòng wù ,zài yīng wén zhōng shì xié è de dài biǎo 。rán ér zhōng guó wén huà lǐ ,guó shì wèi rén lèi zào fú de dòng wù 。
zài yīng yǔ wén huà zhōng ,wèi zài shèng jīng zhōng shì sā dàn de huà shēn 。yī gè 「pō fù 」zài yīng yǔ lǐ yě yòng 「lóng」zhè gè cí lái xíng róng 。lì rú :tā zhēn shì yī gè pō fù ,nǐ zuì hǎo lí tā yuǎn diǎn 。cóng yǐ shàng suǒ yǒu zhè xiē lì zǐ zhōng wǒ men kě yǐ kàn chū xī fāng rén bú xǐ huān lóng 。rán ér zài zhōng guó wén huà zhōng ,gāng hǎo xiāng fǎn ,lóng shì jí xiáng ,quán wēi hé xī guì de xiàng zhēng 。zài fēng jiàn shè huì ,lóng shì jūn zhǔ dì wáng de xiàng zhēng 。
xiàn zài ,lóng zài zhōng guó rén de xīn mù zhōng yī rán yǒu hěn chóng gāo de dì wèi ,tā men rèn wéi tā men shì lóng de chuán rén 。lóng chéng wéi le mín zú tú téng 。zài zhōng lóng yǒu hěn duō guān yú lóng de chéng yǔ 。zhè xiē chéng yǔ dōu fēi cháng xiàng sì 。
lì rú :「wàng zǐ chéng lóng 」(jí xī wàng yī gè rén de ér zǐ yǒu guāng míng de qián tú )duì yīng yǔ wén huà bèi jǐng de rén lái shuō què hěn huāng táng 。zhōng lóng rén cháng yòng 「lóng zǐ lóng sūn 」lái xíng róng zì jǐ 。

The Great Treasure of Chinese Culture-Chinese Kungfu 中國傳統文化的瑰寶——中國功夫

Wushu enjoys a long history and great popularity in China. In the past, Wushu was developed for the sake of military prowess and physical well-being. Wushu was seen as crucial to a solider’s survival in the time of hand-to-hand combat. Today, militray function has faded and it has been organized and systematized into a formal branch of study in the performance arts by the Chinese, while it’s physical welfare and athletic functions become dominant. Hence Wushu is popular among the whole nation of China, practiced by men and women, young and old alike. Today many people practice Wushu to pursue health, defense skills, mental discipline, entertainment and competition.
It’s so popular that school in China almost include Wushu as one of theit compulsory courses because it not only enhances bodybuilding of the teenagers but also opens their eyes to the great treasure of Chinese history.

武術在中國有悠久的歷史和廣泛的群眾基礎。武術最初因為軍事訓練和身體鍛煉得到發展,在徒手打鬥中士兵用它來保命。現在,武術的軍事用途已經漸漸不再被看重,而是發展成一門有組織有系統的藝術表演學科的分支。因為它對身體的好處和運動的特徵成為主要特點。因此武術在全中國範圍內都很受歡迎,男女老少皆宜。當今許多人習武是為了保持健康,自我防衛,修養身心,娛樂和競賽。
武術已經作為必修課程之一普及到中國各個學校,因為它不僅能加強青少年的體格鍛煉,也能使他們瞭解武術這一中國傳統文化的瑰寶。

zhōng guó chuán tǒng wén huà de guī bǎo ——zhōng guó gōng fū

wǔ shù zài zhōng guó yǒu yōu jiǔ de lì shǐ hé guǎng fàn de qún zhòng jī chǔ 。wǔ shù zuì chū yīn wéi jūn shì xùn liàn hé shēn tǐ duàn liàn dé dào fā zhǎn ,zài tú shǒu dǎ dòu zhōng shì bīng yòng tā lái bǎo mìng 。xiàn zài ,wǔ shù de jūn shì yòng tú yǐ jīng jiàn jiàn bú zài bèi kàn zhòng ,ér shì fā zhǎn chéng yī mén yǒu zǔ zhī yǒu xì tǒng de yì shù biǎo yǎn xué kē de fèn zhī 。yīn wéi tā duì shēn tǐ de hǎo chù hé yùn dòng de tè zhēng chéng wéi zhǔ yào tè diǎn 。yīn cǐ wǔ shù zài quán zhōng guó fàn wéi nèi dōu hěn shòu huān yíng ,nán nǚ lǎo shǎo jiē yí 。dāng jīn xǔ duō rén xí wǔ shì wèi le bǎo chí jiàn kāng ,zì wǒ fáng wèi ,xiū yǎng shēn xīn ,yú lè hé jìng sài 。
wǔ shù yǐ jīng zuò wéi bì xiū kè chéng zhī yī pǔ jí dào zhōng guó gè gè xué xiào ,yīn wéi tā bú jǐn néng jiā qiáng qīng shǎo nián de tǐ gé duàn liàn ,yě néng shǐ tā men liǎo jiě wǔ shù zhè yī zhōng guó chuán tǒng wén huà de guī bǎo 。

The Elegance of Tea-drinking and Traditional Chinese Culture茶的格調與中國傳統文化

China is a country with a time-honored civilization and a land of ceremony and decorum. Whenever guests visit, it is necessary to make and serve tea to them. Before serving, you may ask them for their preferences as to what kind of tea they fancy and serve them the tea in the most appropriate teacups. In the course of serving tea, the host should take careful note of how much water is remaining in the cups and in the kettle. Usually, if the tea is made in a teacup, boiling water should be added after half of the cup has been comsumed; and thus the cup is kept filled so that the tea retains the same bouquet and remains pleasantly warm throughout the entire course of tea-drinking. Snacks, sweets and other dishes may be served at tea time to complement the fragrance of the tea and to allay one’s hunger.

中國是文明古國,禮儀之邦,很重禮節。凡是來了客人、沏茶、敬茶的禮儀是必不可少的。當有客來訪,可以徵求意見,選用最合適來客的口味的茶葉和最佳茶具待客。主人在陪伴客人飲茶時,要注意客人杯、壺中的茶水殘留量,一般用茶杯泡茶,如果已經喝去一半,就要添加開水,隨喝隨添,使茶水濃度基本保持前後一致,水溫適宜。在飲茶時也可以適當佐以茶食、糖果、菜肴等,達到調節口味和點心之功效。

chá de gé diào yǔ zhōng guó chuán tǒng wén huà

zhōng guó shì wén míng gǔ guó ,lǐ yí zhī bāng ,hěn zhòng lǐ jiē 。fán shì lái le kè rén 、qī chá 、jìng chá de lǐ yí shì bì bú kě shǎo de 。dāng yǒu kè lái fǎng ,kě yǐ zhēng qiú yì jiàn ,xuǎn yòng zuì hé shì lái kè de kǒu wèi de chá yè hé zuì jiā chá jù dài kè 。zhǔ rén zài péi bàn kè rén yǐn chá shí ,yào zhù yì kè rén bēi 、hú zhōng de chá shuǐ cán liú liàng ,yī bān yòng chá bēi pào chá ,rú guǒ yǐ jīng hē qù yī bàn ,jiù yào tiān jiā kāi shuǐ ,suí hē suí tiān ,shǐ chá shuǐ nóng dù jī běn bǎo chí qián hòu yī zhì ,shuǐ wēn shì yí 。zài yǐn chá shí yě kě yǐ shì dāng zuǒ yǐ chá shí 、táng guǒ 、cài yáo děng ,dá dào tiáo jié kǒu wèi hé diǎn xīn zhī gōng xiào 。

What is “Keqi”? 什麼是「客氣」?

Keqi not only means considerate, polite, and well mannered, but also represents humbleness and modesty. It is impolite to be arrogant and brag about oneself or one’s inner circle. The expression is most often used in the negative, as in “buyao keqi”, meaning “you shouldn’t be so kind and polite to me,” or “you’re welcome.”
Besides, Chinese seldom express what they think directly and they prefer a roundabout way. Neither show their emotions and feelings in public. They rarely greet people with a handshake, though it is very popular among foreigners, say nothing of embracing or kissing when greeting or saying good-bye. Consequently, it is better not to behave too carefree in public, even though you are well-intentioned. Also, it is advisable to be fairly cautious in political discussions. Do not particularly push yourself forward, or else you are unwelcome.
To sum up, do in Rome as Rome does, but you need not worry avout these cultural barriers since most Chinese are hospitable and amiable and will not mind your nonproficiency.

客氣並不只是包含考慮周詳、禮貌文雅和舉止端詳,還表現在謙遜和謹慎。對自己或者自己的圈內人表達的傲慢或者自誇都是不禮貌的。表達的時候,通常要以否定的形式,比如「不要客氣」,意思是說「你不必對我這麼關心、禮貌」或者「不用謝」。
此外,中國人很少直接表達自己的想法,而喜歡用旁敲側擊的方式。從不在公共場合表現自己的情緒或者感覺。儘管在西方握手的見面禮非常普遍,但在中國這樣做的人還不是很多,更不用說見面和道別時的擁抱和親吻了。因此,即使你是出於好意,在公共場合也不要表現的太自由自在。同樣,在政治話題上保持相對謹慎也是明智的。不要太特立獨行,否則你將是不收歡迎的。
總之,入鄉隨俗,但你也不必對這些文化障礙擔心,因為大多數中國人都是好客和和藹的,他們不會介意你的不熟悉。

shén me shì 「kè qì 」?
kè qì bìng bú zhī shì bāo hán kǎo lǜ zhōu xiáng 、lǐ mào wén yǎ hé jǔ zhǐ duān xiáng ,hái biǎo xiàn zài qiān xùn hé jǐn shèn 。duì zì jǐ huò zhě zì jǐ de quān nèi rén biǎo dá de ào màn huò zhě zì kuā dōu shì bù lǐ mào de 。biǎo dá de shí hòu ,tōng cháng yào yǐ fǒu dìng de xíng shì ,bǐ rú 「bú yào kè qì 」,yì sī shì shuō 「nǐ bú bì duì wǒ zhè me guān xīn 、lǐ mào 」huò zhě 「bú yòng xiè 」。
cǐ wài ,zhōng guó rén hěn shǎo zhí jiē biǎo dá zì jǐ de xiǎng fǎ ,ér xǐ huān yòng páng qiāo cè jī de fāng shì 。cóng bú zài gōng gòng chǎng hé biǎo xiàn zì jǐ de qíng xù huò zhě gǎn jué 。jìn guǎn zài xī fāng wò shǒu de jiàn miàn lǐ fēi cháng pǔ biàn ,dàn zài zhōng guó zhè yàng zuò de rén hái bú shì hěn duō ,gèng bú yòng shuō jiàn miàn hé dào bié shí de yōng bào hé qīn wěn le 。yīn cǐ ,jí shǐ nǐ shì chū yú hǎo yì ,zài gōng gòng chǎng hé yě bú yào biǎo xiàn de tài zì yóu zì zài 。tóng yàng ,zài zhèng zhì huà tí shàng bǎo chí xiāng duì jǐn shèn yě shì míng zhì de 。bú yào tài tè lì dú xíng ,fǒu zé nǐ jiāng shì bú shōu huān yíng de 。
zǒng zhī ,rù xiāng suí sú ,dàn nǐ yě bú bì duì zhè xiē wén huà zhàng ài dān xīn ,yīn wéi dà duō shù zhōng guó rén dōu shì hǎo kè hé hé ǎi de ,tā men bú huì jiè yì nǐ de bù shú xī 。

Chinese Characters and the Chinese Art of Calligraphy 中國的漢字與書法藝術

Chinese characters envolved from pictures and signs, and the Chinese art of calligraphy developed naturally from its unique writing system, Through the ages, great calligraphers developed representative calligraphic styles of their times. The love of calligraphy is deeply ingrained in Chinese scholars, and has been handed down to the present day.
Calligraphy takes many years of dedciated practice. Correct stroke order, proper balance and rhythm of characters are essential in calligraphy. Skilled handling of the brush produces a pleasing balance of characters on the paper, thick and thin lines, and heavy and light inking. In most cases, a calligrapher will practice writing the Chinese chatacter Yong (永) , many times in order to perfect the eight basic essential strokes contains within the chatacter. Those who can correctly write the Character Yong beautifully can potentially write all chatacters with beauty.

中國的漢字是從圖畫、符號逐漸演變成的,漢字的書寫和發展過程導致了書法藝術的產生。中國歷代都有大書法家,其書法藝術和風格成為所在朝代書法的典型代表。人們對書法的喜愛一直流傳到今天。
中國的書法經過多年的演變。正確的筆劃順序,書寫漢字的平衡和韻律都是書法的精髓。純熟的握筆方式可以在宣紙上描繪出深、淺、輕、重平衡的筆劃。一個書法家練習最多的是漢字「永」,因為「永」的比劃包含了漢字最基本的八個比例。掌握了「永」字的書法,就等於精通了所有漢字的書法。

zhōng guó de hàn zì yǔ shū fǎ yì shù

zhōng guó de hàn zì shì cóng tú huà 、fú hào zhú jiàn yǎn biàn chéng de ,hàn zì de shū xiě hé fā zhǎn guò chéng dǎo zhì le shū fǎ yì shù de chǎn shēng 。zhōng guó lì dài dōu yǒu dà shū fǎ jiā ,qí shū fǎ yì shù hé fēng gé chéng wéi suǒ zài cháo dài shū fǎ de diǎn xíng dài biǎo 。rén men duì shū fǎ de xǐ ài yī zhí liú chuán dào jīn tiān 。
zhōng guó de shū fǎ jīng guò duō nián de yǎn biàn 。zhèng què de bǐ huà shùn xù ,shū xiě hàn zì de píng héng hé yùn lǜ dōu shì shū fǎ de jīng suǐ 。chún shú de wò bǐ fāng shì kě yǐ zài xuān zhǐ shàng miáo huì chū shēn 、qiǎn 、qīng 、zhòng píng héng de bǐ huà 。yī gè shū fǎ jiā liàn xì zuì duō de shì hàn zì 「yǒng 」,yīn wéi 「yǒng 」de bǐ huá bāo hán le hàn zì zuì jī běn de bā gè bǐ lì 。zhǎng wò le 「yǒng 」zì de shū fǎ ,jiù děng yú jīng tōng le suǒ yǒu hàn zì de shū fǎ 。

The another Meaning of “FACE” in Chinese- “Mianzi”「臉」在中文中的另一個解釋——「面子」

The idea of shame, usually expressed as “face”could be loosely defined as the “status” or “self-respect”in Chines and by no means alien to foreigners. It is the worst thing for a Chinese to lose face. Never insults, embarrass shame, yell at ot otherwise demean a person. Since all this actions would risk putting a Chinese in situation that he might lose face. Nither try to prove someone wrong nor shout at him in public. In order to get a successful effect without letting a Chinese lose face,any criticism should be delivered privately, discreetly and tactfully, or else, just opposite to what you wish.

羞恥這個概念,通常被表達為「面子」。在中文中大致的含義是「地位」或者「自尊」,這和外國人的觀念並不相同。在中國,最糟糕的事莫過於失了面子。所以,千萬不要對一個人進行侮辱、羞辱或者對其大吼,讓其尷尬等。因為這樣會讓一個中國人感覺到失了面子。千萬不要證明某人錯了,或者在公開場合對其吼叫。為了能有效地傳達意見而不讓中國人丟了面子,任何的批評都應該私下傳遞,而且方式要巧妙而謹慎。否則,你將事與願違。


「liǎn 」zài zhōng wén zhōng de lìng yī gè jiě shì ——「miàn zǐ 」

xiū chǐ zhè gè gài niàn ,tōng cháng bèi biǎo dá wéi 「miàn zǐ 」。zài zhōng wén zhōng dà zhì de hán yì shì 「dì wèi 」huò zhě 「zì zūn 」,zhè hé wài guó rén de guān niàn bìng bú xiàng tóng 。zài zhōng guó ,zuì zāo gāo de shì mò guò yú shī le miàn zǐ 。suǒ yǐ ,qiān wàn bú yào duì yī gè rén jìn xíng wǔ rǔ 、xiū rǔ huò zhě duì qí dà hǒu ,ràng qí gān gà děng 。yīn wéi zhè yàng huì ràng yī gè zhōng guó rén gǎn jué dào shī le miàn zǐ 。qiān wàn bú yào zhèng míng mǒu rén cuò le ,huò zhě zài gōng kāi chǎng hé duì qí hǒu jiào 。wéi le néng yǒu xiào dì chuán dá yì jiàn ér bú ràng zhōng guó rén diū le miàn zǐ ,rèn hé de pī píng dōu yīng gāi sī xià chuán dì ,ér qiě fāng shì yào qiǎo miào ér jǐn shèn 。fǒu zé ,nǐ jiāng shì yǔ yuàn wéi 。

The Chinese Banquet and Table Manners 中國的宴席與餐桌禮儀

The meal in China usually begins with a set of at least four cold dishes, to be followed by the main courses of hot meat and vegetable dishes. Soup then will be served ( unless in Guangdong style restaurants ) to be followed by staple food ranging from rice, noddles or dumplings. If you wish to have your rice to go with other dishes, you should say so in good time, for most of the Chinese choose to have the staple food at least or have noon if them at all.
Perhaps one of the things that surprise a Western visitor most is that some of the Chinese hosts like to put food into the plates of their guests. In formal dinners, there are always “public” chopsticks and spoons for this purpose, but some hosts may use their own chopsticks. This is a sign of genuine friendship and politeness. It is always polite to eat the food.
People in China tend to over-order food, for they will find embarrassing if all the food is consumed. When you have had enough, just say so. Or you will always overeat!

中國的宴席通常至少以四道涼菜開始,接下來就是主菜,熱的葷菜和素菜。然後才上湯(除非是廣東餐廳)和主食、米飯、麵條和餃子。如果你想要米飯和其他的菜一起吃,你應該在適當的時候提出來,因為大多數中國人會選擇最後吃主食或一點也不吃。
也許讓西方客人覺得奇怪的是有些中國主人會往客人的碗裏夾菜。在正式的宴席中,都會有公筷和勺子,但有些主人還是會用他們自己的筷子。這是表示真正的友誼和禮貌的方式。吃完食物才證明你是有禮貌的。
中國人總是點多了菜,因為他們會覺得如果食物吃完了會很不好意思。如果你已經吃飽了,你就說出來,不然你會吃撐的。

zhōng guó de yàn xí yǔ cān zhuō lǐ yí

zhōng guó de yàn xí tōng cháng zhì shǎo yǐ sì dào liáng cài kāi shǐ ,jiē xià lái jiù shì zhǔ cài ,rè de hūn cài hé sù cài 。rán hòu cái shàng tāng (chú fēi shì guǎng dōng cān tīng )hé zhǔ shí 、mǐ fàn 、miàn tiáo hé jiǎo zǐ 。rú guǒ nǐ xiǎng yào mǐ fàn hé qí tā de cài yī qǐ chī ,nǐ yīng gāi zài shì dāng de shí hòu tí chū lái ,yīn wéi dà duō shù zhōng guó rén huì xuǎn zé zuì hòu chī zhǔ shí huò yī diǎn yě bù chī 。
yě xǔ ràng xī fāng kè rén jué dé qí guài de shì yǒu xiē zhōng guó zhǔ rén huì wǎng kè rén de wǎn lǐ jiá cài 。zài zhèng shì de yàn xí zhōng ,dōu huì yǒu gōng kuài hé sháo zǐ ,dàn yǒu xiē zhǔ rén hái shì huì yòng tā men zì jǐ de kuài zǐ 。zhè shì biǎo shì zhēn zhèng de yǒu yì hé lǐ mào de fāng shì 。chī wán shí wù cái zhèng míng nǐ shì yǒu lǐ mào de 。
zhōng guó rén zǒng shì diǎn duō le cài ,yīn wéi tā men huì jué dé rú guǒ shí wù chī wán le huì hěn bú hǎo yì sī 。rú guǒ nǐ yǐ jīng chī bǎo le ,nǐ jiù shuō chū lái ,bú rán nǐ huì chī chēng de 。

Hutong Culture and the Change of Siheyuan 胡同文化與四合院的變遷


The word Hutong originated from Mongolian language meaning “Well”. In ancient times, people tended to gather and live around wells. So the original meaning of Hutong should be “a place where people gather and live”.
And another explanation says that during the Yuan Dynasty, about 13th century, residential areas in the city were divided into many divisions. Between the smaller divisions were passageways for people the travel through. And those passageways also functioned as isolation belts against fire risks. In Mongolian language. Passageways of this kind were called Hutong.
Today you can find various Hutongs with different sharps, length or directions. The shortest one is only 10 meters long, and some Hutongs have more than 20 turns.
When you through the Hutongs, you may find most of them look almost the same with gray-colored walls and bricks. Actually inside those walls are the courtyard houses, where people live. In Chieses we call them “siheyuan”. “Si” literally means four, “he” means to surround, and “yuan” refers to the courtyard. So a rectangular wall enclosing four houses, one built on each side facing into the center, is called a Siheyuan. When they were first built, usually one Siheyuan was owned by only one family, but nowadays, with the growth of population, most Siheyuan were shared by 4 to 10 families.

「胡同」這個詞來源於蒙古,意思是「井」。古時候人們生活和聚集在井的周圍,所以「胡同」一詞的本意應該是「人們生活聚集的地方」。
另外一個解釋是,在元朝時(西元13世紀),居民區被分割成幾個區域,區域間設過道以便於居民來往。這些過道的另一個作用就是隔離防火。在蒙古語中,這種過道稱作胡同。
今天你可以發現不同形狀、長度和方向的胡同。最短的胡同只有10米長,有些胡同有20多個彎。
當你進入胡同時,你也許會發現幾乎所有的牆和磚都是灰色的。在這些牆的後面就是居民的家,我們稱其為「四合院」,「四」表示數字四,「合」是圍繞的意思,「院」是庭院的意思。
也就是一個長方形的圍牆圍著四間屋子,每間屋子的門朝著院子中間。過去,一個四合院只屬於一個家庭,而現在隨著人口的增長,大多數四合院住著四到十戶人家。

hú tóng wén huà yǔ sì hé yuàn de biàn qiān

「hú tóng 」zhè gè cí lái yuán yú méng gǔ ,yì sī shì 「jǐng 」。gǔ shí hòu rén men shēng huó hé jù jí zài jǐng de zhōu wéi ,suǒ yǐ 「hú tóng 」yī cí de běn yì yīng gāi shì 「rén men shēng huó jù jí de dì fāng 」。
lìng wài yī gè jiě shì shì ,zài yuán cháo shí (gōng yuán 13shì jì ),jū mín qū bèi fèn gē chéng jǐ gè qū yù ,qū yù jiān shè guòguò dào yǐ biàn yú jū mín lái wǎng 。zhè xiē guò dào de lìng yī gè zuò yòng jiù shì gé lí fáng huǒ 。zài méng gǔ yǔ zhōng ,zhè zhǒng zuò dào chēng zuò hú tóng 。
jīn tiān nǐ kě yǐ fā xiàn bù tón g xíng zhuàng 、cháng dù hé fāng xiàng de hú tóng 。zuì duǎn de hú tóng zhǐ yǒu 10mǐ cháng ,yǒu xiē hú tóng yǒu 20duō gè wān 。
dāng nǐ jìn rù hú tóng shí ,nǐ yě xǔ huì fā xiàn jǐ hū suǒ yǒu de qiáng hé zhuān dōu shì huī sè de 。zài zhè xiē qiáng de hòu miàn jiù shì jū mín de jiā ,wǒ men chēng qí wéi 「sì hé yuàn 」,「sì 」biǎo shì shù zì sì ,「hé 」shì wéi rào de yì sī ,「yuàn 」shì tíng yuàn de yì sī 。
yě jiù shì yī gè cháng fāng xíng de wéi qiáng wéi zhe sì jiān wū zǐ ,měi jiān wū zǐ de mén cháo zhe yuàn zǐ zhōng jiān 。guò qù ,yī gè sì hé yuàn zhī shǔ yú yī gè jiā tíng ,ér xiàn zài suí zhe rén kǒu de zēng zhǎng ,dà duō shù sì hé yuàn zhù zhe sì dào shí hù rén jiā 。

The World Heritage Sites in China-The Summer Palace 在中國的世界文化遺產——頤和園

Situated in the western outskirts of Haidian District, the Summer Palace is 15 kilometers ( 9.3 miles ) from central Beijing. Having the largest royal park and being well preserved, ir was designated, in 1960 by the State Council, as a Key Cultural Relics Protection Site of China.
Containing examples of the ancient arts, it also has graceful landscapes and magnificent constructions. The Summer Palace is the archetypal Chinese garden, and is ranked amongst the most noted and classical gardens of the world. In 1998, it was listed as one of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.
The Summer Palace constructed in the Jin Dynasty ( 1115-1234 ), during the succeeding reign of feudal emperors; it was extended continuously. By the time of Qing Dynasty ( 1644-1911 ), it had become a luxurious royal garden providing royal families with rest and entertainment. Like most of the garden of Beijing, it could not elude the rampages of the Anglo-French allied force and was destroyed by fire. In 1888, Empress Dowager Cixi embezzled navy funds to reconstruct ir for her own benefit, changing its name to Summer Palace ( Yiheyuan ). She spent most of her later years there, dealing with state affairs and entertaining.
The Summer Palace occupied an area of 294 hectares ( 726.5 acres ), three quarters of which is water. Guided by nature, artists designed the gardens exquistely so that visitors would see marvelous views and be amazed by perfect examples of refined craftwork using the finest materials.

頤和園是我國現存最完好、規模最宏大的古代園林。位於北京市海澱區境內,距北京市中心15餘公里,占地290公頃。1961年國務院公佈頤和園為全國重點文物保護單位。
作為古代經典藝術的代表,頤和園裏有優美的景色和壯觀的建築。頤和園是中國典型的花園建築,也是世界園林中享有盛譽的花園。1998年,頤和園被聯合國教科文組織列為世界文化遺產。
頤和園建於晉朝,在接下來的幾代封建皇帝的統治時期不斷得到擴建。到了清朝,它已經成為晚清皇室人員休閒娛樂的場所。和北京大多數園林一樣,英法聯軍入侵北京時,頤和園也未能逃過一劫。1888年,慈禧太后挪用海軍軍費等款項重修,並與兩年後改名為頤和園,作為慈禧太后晚年的頤養之地。
頤和園占地297公頃,水面約占四分之三,頤和園集傳統造園藝術之大成,借景周圍的山水環境,飽含中國皇家園林的恢弘富麗氣勢,又充滿自然之趣,高度體現了「雖由人作,宛自天開」 的造園準則。

zài zhōng guó de shì jiè wén huà yí chǎn ——yí hé yuán

yí hé yuán shì wǒ guó xiàn cún zuì wán hǎo 、guī mó zuì hóng dà de gǔ dài yuán lín 。wèi yú běi jīng shì hǎi diàn qū jìng nèi ,jù běi jīng shì zhōng xīn 15yú gōng lǐ ,zhàn dì 290gōng qǐng 。1961nián guó wù yuàn gōng bù yí hé yuán wéi quán guó zhòng diǎn wén wù bǎo hù dān wèi 。
zuò wéi gǔ dài jīng diǎn yì shù de dài biǎo ,yí hé yuán lǐ yǒu yōu měi de jǐng sè hé zhuàng guān de jiàn zhù 。yí hé yuán shì zhōng guó diǎn xíng de huā yuán jiàn zhù ,yě shì shì jiè yuán lín zhōng xiǎng yǒu shèng yù de huā yuán 。1998nián ,yí hé yuán bèi lián hé guó jiào kē wén zǔ zhī liè wéi shì jiè wén huà yí chǎn 。
yí hé yuán jiàn yú jìn cháo ,zài jiē xià lái de jǐ dài fēng jiàn huáng dì de tǒng zhì shí qī bú duàn dé dào kuò jiàn 。dào le qīng cháo ,tā yǐ jīng chéng wéi wǎn qīng huáng shì rén yuán xiū xián yú lè de chǎng suǒ 。hé běi jīng dà duō shù yuán lín yī yàng ,yīng fǎ lián jūn rù qīn běi jīng shí ,yí hé yuán yě wèi néng táo guò yī jié 。1888nián ,cí xǐ tài hòu nuó yòng hǎi jūn jūn fèi děng kuǎn xiàng chóng xiū ,bìng yǔ liǎng nián hòu gǎi míng wéi yí hé yuán ,zuò wéi cí xǐ tài hòu wǎn nián de yí yǎng zhī dì 。
yí hé yuán zhàn dì 297gōng qǐng ,shuǐ miàn yuē zhàn sì fèn zhī sān ,yí hé yuán jí chuán tǒng zào yuán yì shù zhī dà chéng ,jiè jǐng zhōu wéi de shān shuǐ huán jìng ,bǎo hán zhōng guó huáng jiā yuán lín de huī hóng fù lì qì shì ,yòu chōng mǎn zì rán zhī qù ,gāo dù tǐ xiàn le 「suī yóu rén zuò ,wǎn zì tiān kāi 」 de zào yuán zhǔn zé 。