什麼是普通話

普通話是指以北京語音為標準音,以北方話為基礎方言,以典範的現代白話文著作為語法規範的現代漢民族的共同語。普通話是《國家通用語言文字法》規定的國家通用語言,也是聯合國6種語言之一。普通話在中國台灣省被稱為“國語”,在新加坡、馬來西亞被稱為“華語”。
學好普通話應從三個方面來規範語言,即:語音規範、詞彙規範和語法規範。
一.語音規範
語音規範是指使用同一種語言的人的語音是同一標準音。普通話的規範語音是以北京語音為標準音。普通話語音規範的範圍,主要從字音的聲母、韻母、聲調等方面著手,做到咬準字頭,發響字腹,收全字尾,讀準字調以及掌握兒化音和音變的規律等。
二.詞彙規範
詞彙,又叫做語彙,是指一種語言裡詞的總和。普通話以北方話為基礎方言,它的詞彙是在北方方言詞語的基礎上規範而成的詞的總和。因此,詞彙規範就要克服不屬於普通詞彙的方言詞語,正確運用普通話的詞語。
三.語法規範
“語法”有兩個意思,一是指語法本體、詞語、句子的結構規則,是使用某種語言的民族成員說話時必須共同遵守的語言習慣;二是指研究語法結構規則的語法著作,語法著作中的“語法”是語法家歸納出來的,是對語法本體的描寫和分析。普通話的語法是以典範的現代白話文著作為語法規範。就語法規範而言,既要遵守講普通話時應遵守的習慣,又要遵守現代漢語語法規則,正確掌握頓連、輕重、音變、語調(語氣)等技能,做到準確、真切、抑揚頓挫、富有情感地朗讀作品和完整、流暢地講普通話。

Business Mandarin – Visiting a Factory

A [ 中方工廠代表] : 史密斯先生, 歡迎您來我廠參觀。
B [ 外商] : 謝謝。我這次來工廠, 一是想了解貴廠的產品, 二是想了解工廠的質量管理。
A: 我們也希望您來, 這樣可以增加了解, 為我們今後的合作打下好基礎。
B: 緊固件我們公司經銷的主要商品, 銷往世界各國。請問貴廠能按各國標準組織生產嗎? 例如: 日本準, 美國標準。 (電纜/ 變壓器/ 電動機∥ 德國/ 英國)
A: 可以。我們也已經向一些國​​家出口, 包裝箱都已註明是哪國標準。 (產品名牌)
B: 我們對產品的質量要求很高, 所以我很關心貴廠的質量管理。
A: 這方面的情況您可以在參觀中了解到。我們廠實行全面質量管理, 每一道工序都設有專職檢驗員, 最後還有成品檢驗。
B: 很高興今天能有機會參觀貴廠, 你們的生產能力和質量管理都給我留下了良好印象。我只提一點意見:你們的包裝還應當改進, 要解決防潮問題, 否則海運容易生鏽。要更牢固, 能適應各種運輸方式。 )
A: 謝謝您的指正。
B: 請問, 有產品介紹嗎? 我想更詳細地了解產品有關規格和機械性能。
A: 這是我廠的產品介紹, 中英文對照。您和您的用戶都可以從中了解我們的產品情況。
B: 你們想得很周到, 非常感謝。今後我們的業務中還可能會遇到各種問題, 希望我們精誠合作, 共同解決。
A: 我們會盡最大努力的。

A [Chinese factory representative]: Mr Smith, you are welcome to visit our factory.
B [foreign]: Thank you. I came to the factory, one would like to know your factory’s products, the second is to understand the quality of the management of the plant.
A: We hope you come, so you can increase understanding and to lay a good foundation for our future cooperation.
B: Fasteners major commodity of our distribution company, sold around the world. Will your factory can produce it according to national standards organizations such as:? Japanese standards, American standards. (Cable / transformer / motor ∥ German / English)
A: You can. We have also been exported to some countries, boxes indicate which countries have standards. (Product designer)
B: Our product quality requirements are high, so I am very concerned about the quality of your factory management.
A: in this regard, you can learn in the visit. We plant the implementation of total quality management, every process has a full-time inspectors and, finally, the finished product inspection.
B: I am glad to have the opportunity to visit your factory, your production capacity and quality management gave me left a good impression. I only mention a few comments: Your package should also be improved to solve the moisture problem, otherwise shipping easy to rust. To be more solid, able to adapt to various modes of transport. )
A: Thank you for correcting me.
B: Excuse me, do I want to have a product introduced a more detailed understanding of product-related specifications and mechanical properties?.
A: This is my plant products introduced bilingual. You and your users can learn about the situation of our products.
B: Do you want a very thoughtful, very grateful. Our business in the future may also encounter a variety of problems, we hope that sincere cooperation and common resolve.
A: We will do our best effort.

A [ zhōng fāng gōng chǎng dài biǎo ] : shǐ mì sī xiān shēng , huān yíng nín lái wǒ chǎng cān guān 。
B [ wài shāng ] : xiè xiè 。wǒ zhè cì lái gōng chǎng , yī shì xiǎng le jiě guì chǎng de chǎn pǐn , èr shì xiǎng le jiě gōng chǎng de zhì liàng guǎn lǐ 。
A: wǒ men yě xī wàng nín lái , zhè yàng kě yǐ zēng jiā le jiě , wéi wǒ men jīn hòu de hé zuò dǎ xià hǎo jī chǔ 。
B: jǐn gù jiàn wǒ men gōng sī jīng xiāo de zhǔ yào shāng pǐn , xiāo wǎng shì jiè gè guó 。qǐng wèn guì chǎng néng àn gè guó biāo zhǔn zǔ zhī shēng chǎn ma ? lì rú : rì běn zhǔn , měi guó biāo zhǔn 。 (diàn lǎn / biàn yā qì / diàn dòng jī ∥ dé guó / yīng guó )
A: kě yǐ 。wǒ men yě yǐ jīng xiàng yī xiē guó ​​jiā chū kǒu , bāo zhuāng xiāng dōu yǐ zhù míng shì nǎ guó biāo zhǔn 。 (chǎn pǐn míng pái )
B: wǒ men duì chǎn pǐn de zhì liàng yào qiú hěn gāo , suǒ yǐ wǒ hěn guān xīn guì chǎng de zhì liàng guǎn lǐ 。
A: zhè fāng miàn de qíng kuàng nín kě yǐ zài cān guān zhōng le jiě dào 。wǒ men chǎng shí háng quán miàn zhì liàng guǎn lǐ , měi yī dào gōng xù dōu shè yǒu zhuān zhí jiǎn yàn yuán , zuì hòu hái yǒu chéng pǐn jiǎn yàn 。
B: hěn gāo xìng jīn tiān néng yǒu jī huì cān guān guì chǎng , nǐ men de shēng chǎn néng lì hé zhì liàng guǎn lǐ dōu gěi wǒ liú xià le liáng hǎo yìn xiàng 。wǒ zhī tí yī diǎn yì jiàn :nǐ men de bāo zhuāng hái yīng dāng gǎi jìn , yào jiě jué fáng cháo wèn tí , fǒu zé hǎi yùn róng yì shēng xiù 。yào gèng láo gù , néng shì yīng gè zhǒng yùn shū fāng shì 。 )
A: xiè xiè nín de zhǐ zhèng 。
B: qǐng wèn , yǒu chǎn pǐn jiè shào ma ? wǒ xiǎng gèng xiáng xì dì le jiě chǎn pǐn yǒu guān guī gé hé jī xiè xìng néng 。
A: zhè shì wǒ chǎng de chǎn pǐn jiè shào , zhōng yīng wén duì zhào 。nín hé nín de yòng hù dōu kě yǐ cóng zhōng le jiě wǒ men de chǎn pǐn qíng kuàng 。
B: nǐ men xiǎng dé hěn zhōu dào , fēi cháng gǎn xiè 。jīn hòu wǒ men de yè wù zhōng hái kě néng huì yù dào gè zhǒng wèn tí , xī wàng wǒ men jīng chéng hé zuò , gòng tóng jiě jué 。
A: wǒ men huì jìn zuì dà nǔ lì de 。

Business Mandarin – Leaving the Country

第十二課出境
A [ 海關官員] : 先生, 您是坐這趟飛機嗎?
B [ 外商] : 是。
A: 請您把您的護照、機票和申報單給我看一下。請出示您的護照、機票和申報單
B: 給您。 ( 都在這兒)
A: 您有幾件行李?
B: 三件。一件在這兒, 兩件隨機托運。五件。這兒有兩件, 還有三件海運)
A: 您入關的時候帶的像機哪兒? ( 照相機)
B: 送給一個朋友了。 ( 送給北京第一機床廠了。/ 丟了)
A: 送給個人要上稅, 請您上一下稅吧。請出示接受饋贈單位的證明。 / 請問, 您的遺失有什麼證明?)
B: 好的。 ( 證明在這兒。/ 這是我住的賓館開的遺失證明)
A: 您帶文物了嗎? 您帶沒帶古董字畫?)
B: 帶了一些古玩和字畫。沒帶古董, 帶了幾幅畫。 / 沒帶。 )
A: 請把您的款收據我看一下。 ( 發票)
B: 給您。 ( 我的付款收據丟了。)
A: 好了, 您的手續辦完了。請您先把這幾件古玩、字畫放在我們這兒, 我們給您一張收據, 等我們和文物商店聯繫一下, 把您的付款收據補上, 再通過旅行社把東​​西帶給您。 )
B: 謝謝您。麻煩您了。 )
A: 別客氣。現在您可以走了, 歡迎您再到中國來。

dì shí èr kè chū jìng
A [ hǎi guān guān yuán ] : xiān shēng , nín shì zuò zhè tàng fēi jī ma ?
B [ wài shāng ] : shì 。
A: qǐng nín bǎ nín de hù zhào 、jī piào hé shēn bào dān gěi wǒ kàn yī xià 。qǐng chū shì nín de hù zhào 、jī piào hé shēn bào dān
B: gěi nín 。( dōu zài zhè ér )
A: nín yǒu jǐ jiàn háng lǐ ?
B: sān jiàn 。yī jiàn zài zhè ér , liǎng jiàn suí jī tuō yùn 。wǔ jiàn 。zhè ér yǒu liǎng jiàn , hái yǒu sān jiàn hǎi yùn )
A: nín rù guān de shí hòu dài de xiàng jī nǎ ér ? ( zhào xiàng jī )
B: sòng gěi yī gè péng yǒu le 。( sòng gěi běi jīng dì yī jī chuáng chǎng le 。/ diū le )
A: sòng gěi gè rén yào shàng shuì , qǐng nín shàng yī xià shuì ba 。qǐng chū shì jiē shòu kuì zèng dān wèi de zhèng míng 。/ qǐng wèn , nín de yí shī yǒu shí me zhèng míng ?)
B: hǎo de 。( zhèng míng zài zhè ér 。/ zhè shì wǒ zhù de bīn guǎn kāi de yí shī zhèng míng )
A: nín dài wén wù le ma ? nín dài méi dài gǔ dǒng zì huà ?)
B: dài le yī xiē gǔ wán hé zì huà 。méi dài gǔ dǒng , dài le jǐ fú huà 。/ méi dài 。)
A: qǐng bǎ nín de kuǎn shōu jù wǒ kàn yī xià 。( fā piào )
B: gěi nín 。( wǒ de fù kuǎn shōu jù diū le 。)
A: hǎo le , nín de shǒu xù bàn wán le 。qǐng nín xiān bǎ zhè jǐ jiàn gǔ wán 、zì huà fàng zài wǒ men zhè ér , wǒ men gěi nín yī zhāng shōu jù , děng wǒ men hé wén wù shāng diàn lián xì yī xià , bǎ nín de fù kuǎn shōu jù bǔ shàng , zài tōng guò lǚ háng shè bǎ dōng xī dài gěi nín 。)
B: xiè xiè nín 。má fán nín le 。)
A: bié kè qì 。xiàn zài nín kě yǐ zǒu le , huān yíng nín zài dào zhōng guó lái 。

Lesson XII exit
A [customs officials]: Sir, you are sitting on this tour aircraft it
B [foreign]:? Yes.
A: Please send your passport, ticket and declaration giving me a look. Please show your passport, airline tickets and declaration
B: to you. (All here)
A: You have a few pieces of luggage
B:? Three. One here, two randomly checked. Five. Here there are two, there are three shipping)
A: When your entry with the camera where the (camera)
B:? Sent to a friend. (Sent to Beijing First Machine Tool Plant of ./ lost)
A: To give individuals taxed on what you tax it. Please show proof units receive gifts. / Will you have any proof of loss)
B:? Nice. (Proof here ./ This is my hotel opening loss to prove)
A:? You with heritage yet you did not bring with antiques and paintings)
B:? Brought some antiques and paintings. Not with antiques, with a few paintings. / Did not bring. )
A: Please send your money to close my opinion about. (Invoice)
B: to you. (I lost the receipt of payment.)
A: Well, your paperwork up. You just put a few pieces of antiques, paintings put us here, we give you a receipt, and so we and antique shops in touch, send your payment receipt fill, and then through a travel agent to bring you something. )
B: Thank you. Trouble you. )
A: You’re welcome. Now you can go, you are welcome to China again.

Business Mandarin – Bidding Farewell

第十一課告別
A [ 外商] : 我們明天就要國了, 今天來向各位朋友告別。 ( 去廣州, 然後經廣州回國)
B [ 中方公司職員] : 各位來中國一趟不容易, 北京還有許多名勝古蹟沒有去看, 為什麼不再玩兒幾天呢?
A : 我們也很想再玩兒幾天, 但國內公司的業務很忙, 我必須馬上回去。我們也想看看這裡的名勝古蹟,但國內公司已經催我們回去了, 再說, 我們還要去廣州參加廣交會)
B: 明天點的飛機? ( 幾點走/ 什麼時候動身)
A: 明天下午兩點的飛機。我們這次來中國訪問, 由於各位的熱情合作, 洽談進得很順利, 我們感到非常高興。由於大家的共同努力, 我們準備合作的項目大部分都已經落實, 我們對此感到滿意.
B: 我們的工作一定有很多足之處, 請你們定要給我指出來。 ( 不周到的地方∥多多指教)
A: 你們太客氣了! 我們在訪問期間, 受到了你們的熱情待和無微不至的照顧, 我們表示衷心的感謝! 由於你們盛情的招待和周到的安排, 使我們在這裡生活得很愉快, 我們十分感謝!)
B: 不用客氣。歡迎你們今後再來中國, 希望我們之間的貿易不斷發展!
A: 我們相信今後還會有機會來中國, 我們也希望能在我們國家歡迎中國朋友! 希望們的生意越做越興旺! ( 我們今後有更多的機會合作)

English Translation

Lesson XI farewell
A [foreign]: We country tomorrow, today to say goodbye to our friends. (Go to Guangzhou, and then return home via Guangzhou)
B [Chinese company staff]: you take a trip is not easy to China, Beijing and many sites did not go, why not play a few days it
A? : We also want to play again a few days, but the company’s domestic business is very busy, I had to immediately go back. We also want to see historical sites here, but domestic companies have hurried us back, again, we have to go to Guangzhou to participate in Canton Fair)
B:? Tomorrow point of the plane (points to go / what time to leave)
A: tomorrow afternoon two aircraft. Our trip to China visit, due to the enthusiasm you cooperate, negotiate into very smoothly and we are very pleased. Due to our joint efforts, we are ready to cooperate Most projects have been implemented, we are satisfied
B:. We certainly have a lot of foot work place, please give me point out that you set. (Not good places ∥ exhibitions)
A: You are too kind during our visit, by your passion and meticulous care to be, we express our heartfelt gratitude because of your gracious hospitality and thoughtful arrangements!! , so we very happy to live here, we are very grateful)
B:!’re welcome. Welcome you to come to China in the future, we hope to trade between evolving
A:!! We believe will have the opportunity to come to China in the future, we hope to welcome Chinese friends in our country want their business grew and grew prosperous ! (we have more opportunities for future cooperation)

In Mandarin Pinyin

A [ wài shāng ] : wǒ men míng tiān jiù yào guó le , jīn tiān lái xiàng gè wèi péng yǒu gào bié 。 ( qù guǎng zhōu , rán hòu jīng guǎng zhōu huí guó )
B [ zhōng fāng gōng sī zhí yuán ] : gè wèi lái zhōng guó yī tàng bú róng yì , běi jīng hái yǒu xǔ duō míng shèng gǔ jì méi yǒu qù kàn , wéi shí me bú zài wán ér jǐ tiān ne ?
A : wǒ men yě hěn xiǎng zài wán ér jǐ tiān , dàn guó nà gōng sī de yè wù hěn máng , wǒ bì xū mǎ shàng huí qù 。wǒ men yě xiǎng kàn kàn zhè lǐ de míng shèng gǔ jì ,dàn guó nà gōng sī yǐ jīng cuī wǒ men huí qù le , zài shuō , wǒ men hái yào qù guǎng zhōu cān jiā guǎng jiāo huì )
B: míng tiān diǎn de fēi jī ? ( jǐ diǎn zǒu / shí me shí hòu dòng shēn )
A: míng tiān xià wǔ liǎng diǎn de fēi jī 。wǒ men zhè cì lái zhōng guó fǎng wèn , yóu yú gè wèi de rè qíng hé zuò , qià tán jìn dé hěn shùn lì , wǒ men gǎn dào fēi cháng gāo xìng 。yóu yú dà jiā de gòng tóng nǔ lì , wǒ men zhǔn bèi hé zuò de xiàng mù dà bù fèn dōu yǐ jīng luò shí , wǒ men duì cǐ gǎn dào mǎn yì .
B: wǒ men de gōng zuò yī dìng yǒu hěn duō zú zhī chù , qǐng nǐ men dìng yào gěi wǒ zhǐ chū lái 。 ( bú zhōu dào de dì fāng ∥duō duō zhǐ jiāo )
A: nǐ men tài kè qì le ! wǒ men zài fǎng wèn qī jiān , shòu dào le nǐ men de rè qíng dài hé wú wēi bú zhì de zhào gù , wǒ men biǎo shì zhōng xīn de gǎn xiè ! yóu yú nǐ men shèng qíng de zhāo dài hé zhōu dào de ān pái , shǐ wǒ men zài zhè lǐ shēng huó dé hěn yú kuài , wǒ men shí fèn gǎn xiè !)
B: bú yòng kè qì 。huān yíng nǐ men jīn hòu zài lái zhōng guó , xī wàng wǒ men zhī jiān de mào yì bú duàn fā zhǎn !
A: wǒ men xiàng xìn jīn hòu hái huì yǒu jī huì lái zhōng guó , wǒ men yě xī wàng néng zài wǒ men guó jiā huān yíng zhōng guó péng yǒu ! xī wàng men de shēng yì yuè zuò yuè xìng wàng ! ( wǒ men jīn hòu yǒu gèng duō de jī huì hé zuò )

Business Mandarin – Booking Tickets 2

A [ 外商] : 先生, 我要預訂兩張飛機票。
B [ 飯店訂票員] : 您要去哪兒?
A: 美國紐約。 ( 德國柏林/ 加拿大蒙特利爾/ 意大利羅馬/ 澳大利亞悉尼/ 希臘雅典)
B: 您要訂哪天的機票?
A: 我想訂月二十五號。 (五月三號/ 十二月十一號)
B: 您是訂國聯合航空公司, 還是中國國際航空公司的? ( 德國漢莎航空公司/ 日本全日空航空公司)
A: 訂中國國際航空公司的。
B: 您訂哪種艙?
A: 經濟艙。 ( 頭等艙)
B: 好, 請您提前兩天來取票。
A: 取票時要帶什麼呢?
B: 帶您的護照和錢。
A: 好, 麻煩您了。
B: 別客氣。

A [foreign]: Sir, I would like to book two tickets.
B [hotel booking clerks]: Where are you going
A:? York. (Berlin, Germany / Canada Montreal / Rome, Italy / Australia Sydney / Athens, Greece)
B: You want to set the day’s ticket
A:?, I’d like to book the 25th month. (3 May / December 11)
B: You are set country United Airlines, or China International Airlines (Lufthansa / Japan All Nippon Airways)
A:? Order Chinese international airlines.
B: You order what cabin
A:? Economy. (First Class)
B: Well, you two days in advance to get tickets.
A: what to take when the tickets do
B:? bring your passport and money.
A: Well, trouble you.
B: You’re welcome.

A [ wài shāng ] : xiān shēng , wǒ yào yù dìng liǎng zhāng fēi jī piào 。
B [ fàn diàn dìng piào yuán ] : nín yào qù nǎ ér ?
A: měi guó niǔ yuē 。 ( dé guó bǎi lín / jiā ná dà méng tè lì ěr / yì dà lì luó mǎ / ào dà lì yà xī ní / xī là yǎ diǎn )
B: nín yào dìng nǎ tiān de jī piào ?
A: wǒ xiǎng dìng yuè èr shí wǔ hào 。 (wǔ yuè sān hào / shí èr yuè shí yī hào )
B: nín shì dìng guó lián hé háng kōng gōng sī , hái shì zhōng guó guó jì háng kōng gōng sī de ? ( dé guó hàn shā háng kōng gōng sī / rì běn quán rì kōng háng kōng gōng sī )
A: dìng zhōng guó guó jì háng kōng gōng sī de 。
B: nín dìng nǎ zhǒng cāng ?
A: jīng jì cāng 。 ( tóu děng cāng )
B: hǎo , qǐng nín tí qián liǎng tiān lái qǔ piào 。
A: qǔ piào shí yào dài shí me ne ?
B: dài nín de hù zhào hé qián 。
A: hǎo , má fán nín le 。
B: bié kè qì 。

Business Mandarin – Booking Tickets

第十課訂票

A [ 外商] : 小姐, 我想訂兩張九號去上海的火車票。
B [ 飯店訂票員] : 要直快還是要特快?
A: 特快。 ( 直快)
B: 每天有兩趟快: 13 次特快十四點四十分開, 21 次特二十一點五十五分開, 您要哪一次? ( 直快∥ 119次直快十五點二十三分開, 161 次直快二十點五十八分開)
A: 我要13 次。 (一張119 次, 一張161 次)
B: 要硬臥還是軟臥?
A: 要軟臥。
B: 好, 我們買到票以後, 就通知您來取票。
A: 謝謝。

[foreign businessman ] : Miss , I would like to book two train tickets to Shanghai for the Ninth .
[hotel ticket booking of fice at tendant ] : Do you want the direct or the express train?
Express t rain . Dir ect t rain .
Every day there are two express trains he number 13 t rain leaves at 14∶40 , and the n umber 21 train at 21∶55 . which one do you want? (direct train∥ the no . 119 t rain at 15∶ 23 , no . 161 t rain at 20∶58 )
I want rain number 13 . a tickct for t rain no . 119 , one ticket for tr ain no . 161)
Do you want a hard sleepe r or a sof t sleeper ?
A sof t sleeper
O .K . When we’ve bought the ticket , we’ll inform you so you can come and pick it up .
Thank you .

dì shí kè dìng piào

A [ wài shāng ] : xiǎo jiě , wǒ xiǎng dìng liǎng zhāng jiǔ hào qù shàng hǎi de huǒ chē piào 。
B [ fàn diàn dìng piào yuán ] : yào zhí kuài hái shì yào tè kuài ?
A: tè kuài 。 ( zhí kuài )
B: měi tiān yǒu liǎng tàng kuài : 13 cì tè kuài shí sì diǎn sì shí fèn kāi , 21 cì tè èr shí yī diǎn wǔ shí wǔ fèn kāi , nín yào nǎ yī cì ? ( zhí kuài ∥ 119cì zhí kuài shí wǔ diǎn èr shí sān fèn kāi , 161 cì zhí kuài èr shí diǎn wǔ shí bā fèn kāi )
A: wǒ yào 13 cì 。 (yī zhāng 119 cì , yī zhāng 161 cì )
B: yào yìng wò hái shì ruǎn wò ?
A: yào ruǎn wò 。
B: hǎo , wǒ men mǎi dào piào yǐ hòu , jiù tōng zhī nín lái qǔ piào 。
A: xiè xiè 。