Mandarin language learning HK – Cells and Temperature

Mandarin Lesson

Cells and Temperature

Cells cannot remain alive outside certain limits of temperature and much narrower limits mark the boundaries of effective functioning. Enzyme systems of mammals and birds are most efficient only within a narrow range around 37C;a departure of a few degrees from this value seriously impairs their functioning. Even though cells can survive wider fluctuations the integrated actions of bodily systems are impaired. Other animals have a wider tolerance for changes of bodily temperature.

 

For centuries it has been recognized that mammals and birds differ from other animals in the way they regulate body temperature. Ways of characterizing the difference have become more accurate and meaningful over time, but popular terminology still reflects the old division into “warm-blooded” and “cold-blooded” species; warm-blooded included mammals and birds whereas all other creatures were considered cold-blooded. As more species were studied, it became evident that this classification was inadequate. A fence lizard or a desert iguana—each cold-blooded—-usually has a body temperature only a degree or two below that of humans and so is not cold. Therefore the next distinction was made between animals that maintain a constant body temperature, called homeotherms, and those whose body temperature varies with their environments, called poikilotherms. But this classification also proved inadequate, because among mammals there are many that vary their body temperatures during hibernation. Furthermore, many invertebrates that live in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the chill of the deep water, and their body temperatures remain constant.

 

細胞與溫度

細胞只能在一定的溫度範圍內存活,而進一步保證它們有效工作的溫度範圍就更小了。哺乳動物和鳥類的酶系統只能在37℃左右的很小範圍內才能有效工作。與此相差僅幾度的溫度都會大大削弱它們的工作效率。儘管溫度變化更大時細胞仍能存活,但機體系統的整體運行能力卻被削弱了。其它動物對體溫的變化有更強的適應性。

幾個世紀以來,人們就認識到哺乳動物和鳥類調節體溫的方式與其它動物不同。隨著時間的推移,人們對這種差異的描述越來越精確和有意義,但是”暖血動物” 和”冷血動物”這一古老的分類方式至今仍在大眾詞彙中有所反映。暖血動物包括哺乳動物和鳥類,其它動物統統被視為冷血動物。但是對更多物種進行的研究表明這種分類顯然是不適當的。美洲一種小型蜥蜴和沙漠鬣蜥同屬冷血動物,但實際上它們的體溫通常只比人類的體溫低1~2度,因此並不是真正的冷血。因此又出現了恆溫動物(即保持恆定體溫的動物)和變溫動物(即體溫隨外界環境的變化而改變的動物)這一區分方式。但這種分類也不恰當。因為有不少哺乳動物在冬眠期間會改變體溫,而許多生活在深海的無脊椎動物在寒冷的深海水域中體溫並不變化,而是恆定的。

Xìbāo yǔ wēndù

Xìbāo zhǐ néng zài yīdìng de wēndù fànwéi nèicún huó, ér jìnyībù bǎozhèng tāmen yǒuxiào gōngzuò de wēndù fànwéi jiù gèng xiǎole. Bǔrǔ dòngwù hé niǎo lèi de méi xìtǒng zhǐ néng zài 37℃zuǒyòu de hěn xiǎo fànwéi nèi cáinéng yǒuxiào gōngzuò. Yǔ cǐ xiāngchà jǐn jǐ dù de wēndù dūhuì dàdà xuēruò tāmen de gōngzuò xiàolǜ. Jǐnguǎn wēndù biànhuà gèng dà shí xìbāo réng néng cúnhuó, dàn jītǐ xìtǒng de zhěngtǐ yùnxíng nénglì què bèi xuēruòle. Qítā dòngwù duì tǐwēn de biànhuà yǒu gèng qiáng de shìyìng xìng. Jǐ gè shìjì yǐlái, rénmen jiù rènshi dào bǔrǔ dòngwù hé niǎo lèi tiáojié tǐwēn de fāngshì yǔ qítā dòngwù bùtóng. Suízhe shíjiān de tuīyí, rénmen duì zhè zhǒng chāyì de miáoshù yuè lái yuè jīngquè hé yǒu yìyì, dànshì”nuǎn xuè dòngwù” hé”lěngxuè dòngwù”zhè yī gǔlǎo de fēnlèi fāngshì zhìjīn réng zài dàzhòng cíhuì zhōng yǒu suǒ fǎnyìng. Nuǎn xuè dòngwù bāokuò bǔrǔ dòngwù hé niǎo lèi, qítā dòngwù tǒngtǒng bèi shì wéi lěngxuè dòngwù. Dànshì duì gèng duō wùzhǒng jìnxíng de yánjiū biǎomíng zhè zhǒng fēnlèi xiǎnrán shì bù shìdàng de. Měizhōu yì zhǒng xiǎoxíng xīyì hé shāmò liè xī tóngshǔ lěngxuè dòngwù, dàn shíjì shang tāmen de tǐwēn tōngcháng zhǐ bǐ rénlèi de tǐwēn dī 1~2 dù, yīncǐ bìng bùshì zhēnzhèng de lěngxuè. Yīncǐ yòu chūxiànle héngwēn dòngwù (jí bǎochí héngdìng tǐwēn de dòngwù) hé biànwēn dòngwù (jí tǐwēn suí wàijiè huánjìng de biànhuà ér gǎibiàn de dòngwù) zhè yī qūfēn fāngshì. Dàn zhè zhǒng fēnlèi yě bù qiàdàng. Yīnwèi yǒu bù shǎo bǔrǔ dòngwù zài dōngmián qíjiān huì gǎibiàn tǐwēn, ér xǔduō shēnghuó zài shēnhǎi de wú jǐchuí dòngwù zài hánlěng de shēnhǎi shuǐyù zhōng tǐwēn bìng bù biànhuà, ér shì héngdìng de.

語言學習-普通話練習 -不可多得

Mandarin Lesson

不可多得

   這個典故出自《後漢書.文苑列傳下》。東漢晚年,平原郡(今山東臨邑)有個叫禰衡的人,博覽群書,機敏善辯,才華顯赫,深受當時貴族大夫所器重。在朝廷任太中大夫的孔融很欣賞禰衡的才能,便寫奏表給漢獻帝,向朝廷推薦這個人才。漢獻帝是傀儡皇帝,看了奏表後不敢同意,就把奏表交給曹操處理。曹操便召見了禰衡。誰知見面的時候,禰衡對曹操輕視傲慢,這使曹操很生氣,心中起了殺機,但他又不想讓禰衡死在這裡,擔負枉殺賢才的罪名,便把禰衡派到劉表那裡,想藉劉表之手殺害他。開始時,劉表對等禰衡很好,可是不久,禰衡又輕視傲慢劉表起來,劉表也很生氣,就把他派到部將黃祖那裡,也想”借刀殺人”,但黃祖和他的兒子黃射對禰衡的才華非常欽佩,把他作為上賓款待。一次,黃射擺宴請客,有人送來一隻鸚鵡,黃射很高興,便請禰衡寫篇辭賦,以助酒興。禰衡爽快答應,揮筆而就,一會兒功夫就寫出了中國文學史上著名的《鸚鵡賦》,頓時大家一齊拍手叫好。但是禰衡清高的性情始終沒能改變。一天,禰衡與黃祖交談中又侮慢對方,一氣之下,黃祖就叫人殺了禰衡,此時他才25歲。

   現一般用此典故比喻少有、難得的人才。

Bùkě duō dé

Zhège diǎngù chūzì “hòuhàn shū. Wényuàn lièzhuàn xià”. Dōnghàn wǎnnián, píngyuán jùn (jīn shāndōng lín yì) yǒu gè jiào mí héng de rén, bólǎn qún shū, jīmǐn shàn biàn, cáihuá xiǎnhè, shēn shòu dāngshí guìzú dàfū suǒ qìzhòng. Zài cháotíng rèntàizhōng dàfū de kǒng róng hěn xīnshǎng mí héng de cáinéng, biàn xiě zòu biǎo gěi hàn xiàndì, xiàng cháotíng tuījiàn zhège réncái. Hàn xiàndì shì kuǐlěi huángdì, kànle zòu biǎo hòu bù gǎn tóngyì, jiù bǎ zòu biǎo jiāo gěi cáocāo chǔlǐ. Cáocāo biàn zhàojiànle mí héng. Shuí zhī jiànmiàn de shíhou, mí héng duì cáocāo qīngshì àomàn, zhè shǐ cáocāo hěn shēngqì, xīnzhōng qǐle shājī, dàn tā yòu bùxiǎng ràng mí héng sǐ zài zhèlǐ, dānfù wang shā xián cái de zuìmíng, biàn bǎ mí héng pài dào liúbiǎo Nàlǐ, xiǎng jiè liúbiǎo zhī shǒu shāhài tā. Kāishǐ shí, liúbiǎo duì děng mí héng hěn hǎo, kěshì bùjiǔ, mí héng yòu qīngshì àomàn liúbiǎo qǐlái, liúbiǎo yě hěn shēngqì, jiù bǎ tā pài dào bù jiāng huáng zǔ nàlǐ, yě xiǎng”jièdāoshārén”, dàn huáng zǔ hé tā de Érzi huáng shè duì mí héng de cáihuá fēicháng qīnpèi, bǎ tā zuòwéi shàngbīn kuǎndài. Yīcì, huáng shè bǎi yànqǐng kè, yǒurén sòng lái yī zhǐ yīngwǔ, huáng shè hěn gāoxìng, biàn qǐng mí héng xiě piān cífù, yǐ zhù jiǔxìng. Mí héng shuǎngkuài dāyìng, huī bǐ ér jiù, yīhuǐ’er gōngfu jiù xiě chūle zhōngguó wénxué shǐshàng zhùmíng de “yīngwǔ fù”, dùnshí dàjiā yì qí pāishǒu jiàohǎo. Dànshì mí héng qīnggāo dì xìngqíng shǐzhōng méi néng gǎibiàn. Yītiān, mí héng yǔ huáng zǔ jiāotán zhōng yòu wǔmàn duìfāng, yīqìzhīxià, huáng zǔ jiù jiào rén shāle mí héng, cǐ shí tā cái 25 suì. Xiàn yībān yòng cǐ diǎngù bǐyù shǎo yǒu, nándé de réncái.

learn chinese in hong kong -The environment

Mandarin Lesson

It is not my contention that chemical insecticides must never be used. I do contend that we have put poisonous and biologically potent chemicals indiscriminately into the hands of persons largely or wholly ignorant of their potentials for harm. We have subjected enormous numbers of people to contact with these poisons, without their consent and often without their knowledge. I contend, furthermore, that we have allowed these chemicals to be used with little or no advance investigation of their effect on soil, water, wildlife, and man himself. Future generations are unlikely to forgive our lack of concern for the integrity of the natural world that supports all life.

環境

我不是說人類決不能使用化學殺蟲劑。我要說的是,我們不分青紅皂白地將這些有毒的、具有強大生物功能的化學製品,交給了那些對這些製品的潛在危害基本上或者完全無知的人去使用。我們使眾多的人接觸這些有毒物質,卻沒有徵得他們的同意,並常常將他們蒙在鼓中。我還要說的一點是,我們允許使用這些化學製品,卻事先很少或者根本沒有調查它們對土壤、水、野生生物以及人類自身造成的影響。我們缺乏對萬物賴以生存的自然界生態統一的關心,對此,我們的後代是不可能原諒的。

Huánjìng

Wǒ bùshì shuō rénlèi jué bùnéng shǐyòng huàxué shā chóng jì. Wǒ yào shuō de shì, wǒmen bù fēn qīnghóngzàobái dì jiāng zhèxiē yǒudú dí, jùyǒu qiángdà shēngwù gōngnéng de huàxué zhìpǐn, jiāo gěile nàxiē duì zhèxiē zhìpǐn de qiánzài wéihài jīběn shàng huòzhě wánquán wúzhī de rén qù shǐyòng. Wǒmen shǐ zhòngduō de rén jiēchù zhèxiē yǒudú wùzhí, què méiyǒu zhēng de tāmen de tóngyì, bìng chángcháng jiāng tāmen méng zài gǔ zhōng. Wǒ hái yào shuō de yīdiǎn shì, wǒmen yǔnxǔ shǐyòng zhèxiē huàxué zhìpǐn, què shìxiān hěn shǎo huòzhě gēnběn méiyǒu diàochá tāmen duì tǔrǎng, shuǐ, yěshēng shēngwù yǐjí rénlèi zìshēn zàochéng de yǐngxiǎng. Wǒmen quēfá duì wànwù lài yǐ shēngcún de zìránjiè shēngtài tǒngyī de guānxīn, duì cǐ, wǒmen de hòudài shì bù kěnéng yuánliàng de.

普通話導師-普通話研習 -不如識丁

Mandarin Lesson

不如識丁

 

這個典故出自《舊唐書.列傳.張延賞》中所附的《張弘靖》。唐代幽州(今北京市和天津市及河北省的部分地區)節度使張弘靖部下的帶兵頭領韋雍、張宗厚等人,依仗權勢,欺壓百妖,虐待士兵,又嗜好飲酒。常常在夜裡喝醉才散。回去時叫侍衛點著燈籠簇擁著他們,燈火照明了大半條街,又任意辱罵和驅趕街上的行人。使當地的百姓很反感。遇到韋雍、張宗厚不高興時,還無故責罵士兵,甚至罵他們叫”反賊”。有一回,他倆竟對士兵吼叫著說:”現在天下太平,你們這些能拉開兩石重的硬弓,也不如認識一個\’丁\’(個)字。”士兵們情緒不穩,常常懷恨在心。後來,張弘靖的前任劉總派人送來一百萬貫錢。犒賞士兵。但張弘靖卻從中剋扣了二十萬掄為私有,只拿出八十萬分給大家。士兵們知道了這件事後,想起平日韋雍、張宗厚等人對他們的欺辱,再加上當地百姓也仇恨這幾個人,便一齊拿起武器,殺死了韋雍和張宗厚等人,又把張弘靖軟禁起來,擁戴朱洄做臨時統帥。張弘靖雖然在這次事件中沒有喪命,但還是被朝廷降調到撫州做刺史。

 

現用此典故比喻文盲或沒有文化。

Bùrú shí dīng

Zhège diǎngù chūzì “jiù táng shū. Lièzhuàn. Zhāngyánshǎng” zhōng suǒ fù de “zhāng hóngjìng”. Tángdàiyōu zhōu (jīn běijīng shì hé tiānjīn shì jí héběi shěng de bùfèn dìqū) jié dù shǐ zhāng hóngjìng bùxià de dài bīng tóulǐng wéi yōng, zhāngzōnghòu děng rén, yīzhàng quánshì, qīyā bǎi yāo, nüèdài shìbīng, yòu shìhào yǐnjiǔ. Chángcháng zài yèlǐ hē zuì cái sàn. Huíqù shí jiào shìwèi diǎnzhe dēnglóng cùyōngzhe tāmen, dēnghuǒ zhàomíngliǎo dàbàn tiáo jiē, yòu rènyì rǔmà hé qūgǎn jiē shàng de xíngrén. Shǐ dāngdì de bǎixìng hěn fǎngǎn. Yù dào wéi yōng, zhāngzōnghòu bù gāoxìng shí, hái wúgù zémà shìbīng, shènzhì mà tāmen jiào”fǎn zéi”. Yǒuyī huí, tā liǎ jìng duì shìbīng hǒujiàozhe shuō:”Xiànzài tiānxià tàipíng, nǐmen zhèxiē néng lā kāi liǎng shí zhòng de yìnggōng, yě bùrú rèn shí yīgè\’dīng\'(gè) zì.”Shìbīngmen qíngxù bù wěn, chángcháng Huáihèn zàixīn. Hòulái, zhāng hóngjìng de qiánrèn liú zǒng pài rén sòng lái yībǎi wàn guàn qián. Kàoshǎng shìbīng. Dàn zhāng hóngjìng què cóngzhōng kèkòule èrshí wàn lūn wèi sīyǒu, zhǐ ná chū bāshí wàn fēn gěi dàjiā. Shìbīngmen zhīdàole zhè jiàn shìhòu, xiǎngqǐ píngrì wéi yōng, zhāngzōnghòu děng rén duì tāmen de qīrǔ, zài jiā shàng dàng de bǎixìng yě chóuhèn zhè jǐ gèrén, biàn yīqí ná qǐ wǔqì, shā sǐle wéi yōnghé zhāngzōnghòu děng rén, yòu bǎ zhāng Hóngjìng ruǎnjìn qǐlái, yōngdài zhū huí zuò línshí tǒngshuài. Zhāng hóngjìng suīrán zài zhè cì shìjiàn zhōng méiyǒu sàngmìng, dàn háishì bèi cháotíng jiàng diào dào fǔzhōu  zuò cìshǐ. Xiàn yòng cǐ diǎngù bǐyù wénmáng huò méiyǒu wénhuà.

learn mandarin hong kong -Earth

Mandarin Lesson

It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the earth. Given time not in years but in millennia life adjusts, and a balance has been reached. But in the modern world there is no time.

The rapidity of change follows the impetuous pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature. Radiation is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals are the synthetic5 creations of man’s inventive mind, having no counterparts in nature.

To adjust to these chemicals would require not merely the years of a man’s life but the life of generations. And even this, were it by some miracle possible, would be futile, for the new chemicals come from our laboratories in an endless stream; almost five hundred annually find their way into actual use in theUnited Statesalone. Among them are many that are used in man’s war against nature. Since the mid1940’s over 100 basic chemicals have been created for use in killing insects, weeds, and other organisms described as “pests.”

地球

地球歷經了許多億年才創造了棲息其上的生命。經過了一定時間–不是以若干年計而是以若干千年計的時間–生命開始適應環境,並形成了一種與環境的平衡。但是在現代世界中,時間這一因素已經沒有了。

環境改變的速度不再順從大自然從容不迫的節奏,而是順從人類急切匆匆的步伐。輻射是當今人類通過支配原子而得到的一種非自然的創造物。化學製品則是人類有發明創造力的頭腦創造出來的合成物,在自然界本無相應的東西。

為了適應這些化學製品,人類需要付出的時間不會只是一個人一生的時間,而是幾代人的時間。而即使這樣,就算出現奇蹟成為可能,這種適應也是徒勞的,因為新的化學製品從我們的實驗室中源源不斷地湧出。僅在美國,每年就有大約500種化學製品投入使用,其中許多是用於人類對自然的戰爭中。從20世紀40年代中期起,人類已經創造了100多種基本化學製品用來消滅昆蟲、野草以及其他所謂的“有害生物”。

dìqiú

Dìqiú lìjīngle xǔduō yì nián cái chuàngzàole qīxi qí shàng de shēngmìng. Jīngguòle yīdìng shíjiān–bùshì yǐ ruògān nián jì ér shì yǐ ruògān qiānnián jì de shíjiān–shēngmìng kāishǐ shìyìng huánjìng, bìng xíngchéngle yī zhǒng yǔ huánjìng de pínghéng. Dànshì zài xiàndài shìjiè zhōng, shíjiān zhè yī yīnsù yǐjīng méiyǒule. Huánjìng gǎibiàn de sùdù bù zài shùncóng dà zìrán cóngróngbùpò de jiézòu, ér shì shùncóng rénlèi jíqiè cōngcōng de bùfá. Fúshè shì dāngjīn rénlèi tōngguò zhīpèi yuánzǐ ér dédào de yī zhǒng fēi zìrán de chuàngzào wù. Huàxué zhìpǐn zé shì rénlèi yǒu fāmíng chuàngzào lì de tóunǎo chuàngzào chūlái de héchéng wù, zài zìránjiè běn wū xiāngyìng de dōngxi. Wèile shìyìng zhèxiē huàxué zhìpǐn, rénlèi xūyào fùchū de shíjiān bù huì zhǐshì yīgè rén yīshēng de shíjiān, ér shì jǐ dài rén de shíjiān. Ér jíshǐ zhèyàng, jiùsuàn chūxiàn qíjī chéngwéi kěnéng, zhè zhǒng shìyìng yěshì túláo de, yīnwèi xīn de huàxué zhìpǐn cóng wǒmen de shíyàn shì zhōng yuányuán bùduàn de yǒng chū. Jǐn zài měiguó, měinián jiù yǒu dàyuē 500 zhǒng huàxué zhìpǐn tóurù shǐyòng, qízhōng xǔduō shì yòng yú rénlèi duì zìrán de zhànzhēng zhōng. Cóng 20 shìjì 40 niándài zhōngqí qǐ, rénlèi yǐjīng chuàngzàole 100 duō zhǒng jīběn huàxué zhìpǐn yòng lái xiāomiè kūnchóng, yěcǎo yǐjí qítā suǒwèi de “yǒuhài shēngwù”.

語文能力-普通話教育 -補天之功

Mandarin Lesson

補天之功

 

在中國古代神話中,女媧是人類的始祖。是她摶土造人才因而有了人類。女媧不僅造人,而且能給人間解除各種危難。原來很古的時候,撐著上天的四根大柱折了,中原一帶地也下陷了,到處是大火,到處是汪洋一片的大水,不少猛獸以食人為生,各種兇惡的鳥也來抓食老弱病殘者。女媧看著人間的苦難,心中十分不平。於是她便煉五彩石把傾斜的蒼天補好了,把一種猛獸的四隻腳砍來做為擎天大柱撐立於天之東南西北的盡頭。這樣天就不再漏了,也不再傾斜了。她又把黑龍殺死填平了下陷的土地,中原一帶的地也平坦了。傷害人的猛獸都被殺死了,地上之人才有了一個安定的可以生活的環境。女媧的功勞真可以和古希臘的普羅米修斯相比,他們都是人類的偉大的庇護者。

《女媧補天》的故事載於《淮南子.覽冥訓》中。這個美麗的神話故事反映了我國古代勞動人民同大自然鬥爭的壯麗而又可歌可泣的歷程。魯迅先生據此神話寫了著名的短篇小說《補天》(亦名《不周山》),更加生動形像地反映了女媧不朽的業績,塑造了一個美麗、善良、堅韌而又胸懷博大的我國古代女神的光輝形象。在魯迅的筆下,這則神話放出了更加耀眼的光輝。

Bǔ tiān zhī gōng

Zài zhōngguó gǔdài shénhuà zhōng, nǚ wā shì rénlèi de shǐzǔ. Shì tā tuán tǔ zào réncái yīn’ér yǒule rénlèi. Nǚ wā bùjǐn zào rén, érqiě néng jǐ rénjiān jiěchú gè zhǒng wéinàn. Yuánlái hěn gǔ de shíhou, chēngzhe shàngtiān de sì gēn dà zhù zhéle, zhōngyuán yīdài de yě xiàxiànle, dàochù shì dàhuǒ, dàochù shì wāngyáng yīpiàn de dà shuǐ, bù shǎo měngshòu yǐ shí rénwéi shēng, gè zhǒng xiōng’è de niǎo yě Lái zhuā shí lǎo ruò bìng cán zhě. Nǚ wā kànzhe rénjiān de kǔnàn, xīnzhōng shífēn bùpíng. Yúshì tā biàn liàn wǔcǎi shí bǎ qīngxié de cāngtiān bǔ hǎole, bǎ yī zhǒng měngshòu de sì zhǐ jiǎo kǎn lái zuò wèi qíng tiān dà zhù chēng lì yú tiān zhī dōngnán xīběi de jìntóu. Zhèyàng tiān jiù bù zài lòule, yě bù zài qīngxiéle. Tā yòu bǎ hēilóng shā sǐ tián píngle xiàxiàn de tǔdì, zhōngyuán yīdài dì dì yě píngtǎnle. Shānghài rén de měngshòu dōu bèi shā sǐle, dìshàng zhī réncái yǒule yīgè āndìng de kěyǐ shēnghuó de huánjìng. Nǚ wā de gōngláo zhēn kěyǐ hé gǔ xīlà de pǔluō mǐ xiū sī xiāng bǐ, tāmen dōu shì rénlèi de wěidà de bìhù zhě. “Nǚ wā bǔ tiān” de gùshì zài yú “huáinán zi. Lǎn míng xun” zhōng. Zhège měilì de shénhuà gùshì fǎnyìngle wǒguó gǔdài láodòng rénmín tóng dà zìrán dòuzhēng de zhuànglì ér yòu kěgēkěqì de lìchéng. Lǔxùn xiānshēng jù cǐ shénhuà xiěle zhùmíng de duǎnpiān xiǎoshuō “bǔ tiān”(yì míng “bù zhōushān”), gèngjiā shēngdòng xíngxiàng de fǎnyìngle nǚ wā bùxiǔ de yèjī, sùzàole yīgè měilì, shànliáng, jiānrèn ér yòu xiōnghuái bódà de wǒguó Gǔdài nǚshén de guānghuī xíngxiàng. Zài lǔxùn de bǐxià, zhè zé shénhuà fàngchūle gèngjiā yàoyǎn de guānghuī.

learn mandarin hong kong – Food Safe To Eat?

Mandarin Lesson

Food Safe To Eat?

Traditional plant breeding involve s crossing varieties of the same species in ways they could cross naturally.For example,disease-resistant varieties of wheat have been crossed with high-yield wheat to combine these properties.This type of natural gene exchange is safe and fairly predictable.

Genetic engineering(GE)involves exchanging genes between unrelated species that cannot naturally exchange genes with each other.GE can involve the exchange of genes between vastly different species――e.g.putting scorpion toxin genes into maize or fish antifreeze genes into tomatoes.It is possible that a scorpion toxin gene,even when it is in maize DNA,will still get the organism to produce scorpion toxin――but what other effects may it have in this alien environment?We are already seeing this problem――adding human growth hormone genes to pigs certainly makes them grow――but it also gives them arthritis and makes them cross-eyed,which was entirely unpredictable.

It will be obvious,for example,that the gene for human intelligence will not have the same effect if inserted into cabbage DNA as it had in human DNA――but what side-effect would it have?In other words,is GM food safe to eat?The answer is that nobody knows because long-term tests have not been carried out.

 

 

食用轉基因食品安全嗎?

傳統的植物培育方法,是依照植物自然雜交的方式,進行相同物種的人工雜交。比如,抗病小麥同高產小麥雜交,形成了一種具有雙重特性的新的小麥品種。這種自然的基因交換既安全,又具有相當的可預見性。

基因工程是在彼此毫無關係的物種之間,相互交換在自然條件下無法交換的基因。它可在有巨大差異的物種之間進行基因交換。比如,將蝎子毒素基因注入玉米,或者將魚防凍基因注入西紅柿。即使在玉米DNA中,蝎子毒素基因依然可能獲得有機組織產生蝎子毒素。但是在這種異質的環境中,這種基因產品會有什麼其他作用嗎?我們實際上已經發現這個問題:將人類生長荷爾蒙基因植入豬的體內,一定會使豬的生長加速,但是同時也使豬患上了關節炎和內斜視,而這一切是完全無法預測的。

打個比方,人類的智力基因顯而易見在人體DNA內和注入捲心菜DNA後的作用是不同的。但將它植入捲心菜中會產生什麼樣的副作用呢?換句話說,食用轉基因食品安全嗎?沒有人知道答案,因為人們尚未進行長期的測試。

 

Shíyòng zhuǎnjīyīn shípǐn ānquán ma?

Chuántǒng de zhíwù péiyù fāngfǎ, shì yīzhào zhíwù zìrán zájiāo de fāngshì, jìnxíng xiāngtóng wùzhǒng de réngōng zájiāo. Bǐrú, kàng bìng xiǎomài tóng gāochǎn xiǎomài zájiāo, xíngchéngle yī zhǒng jùyǒu shuāngchóng tèxìng de xīn de xiǎomài pǐnzhǒng. Zhè zhǒng zìrán de jīyīn jiāohuàn jì ānquán, yòu jùyǒu xiāngdāng de kě yùjiàn xìng. Jīyīn gōngchéng shì zài bǐcǐ háo wú guānxì de wùzhǒng zhī jiān, xiānghù jiāohuàn zài zìrán tiáojiàn xià wúfǎ jiāohuàn de jīyīn. Tā kě zài yǒu jùdà chāyì de wùzhǒng zhī jiān jìnxíng jīyīn jiāohuàn. Bǐrú, jiāng xiēzi dúsù jīyīn zhùrù yùmǐ, huòzhě jiāng yú fángdòng jīyīn zhùrù xīhóngshì. Jíshǐ zài yùmǐ DNA zhōng, xiēzi dúsù jīyīn yīrán kěnéng huòdé yǒujī zǔzhī chǎnshēng xiēzi dúsù. Dànshì zài zhè zhǒng yì zhí de huánjìng zhōng, zhè zhǒng jīyīn chǎnpǐn huì yǒu shé me qítā zuòyòng ma? Wǒmen shíjì shang yǐjīng fāxiàn zhège wèntí: Jiāng rénlèi shēngzhǎng hè’ěrméng jīyīn zhí rù zhū de tǐnèi, yīdìng huì shǐ zhū de shēngzhǎng jiāsù, dànshì tóngshí yě shǐ zhū huàn shàngle guānjié yán hé nèixiéshì, ér zhè yīqiè shì wánquán wúfǎ yùcè de. Dǎ gè bǐfāng, rénlèi de zhìlì jīyīn xiǎn’éryìjiàn zài réntǐ DNA nèi hé zhùrù juǎnxīncài DNA hòu de zuòyòng shì bùtóng de. Dàn jiāng tā zhí rù juǎnxīncài zhōng huì chǎnshēng shénme yàng de fùzuòyòng ne? Huàn jù huàshuō, shíyòng zhuǎnjīyīn shípǐn ānquán ma? Méiyǒu rén zhīdào dá’àn, yīn wéi rénmen shàngwèi jìnxíng chángqí de cèshì.

普通話拼音 -成人普通話課程 -暴虎馮河

Mandarin Lesson

暴虎馮河

 

這個典故見於《論語.述而》。春秋時,孔子的學生子路雖然身強力壯,勇敢無畏,但做事考慮不周,缺少智謀。為此孔夫子不太喜歡這個學生,子路知道後心裡也不太服氣。有一次,子路有意來詢問孔子:”假若你來指揮軍隊,那麼你將需用什麼樣的人呢?”孔子回答:”徒手和老虎搏鬥、徒步過河、死了都不埋怨的人,我是不能用的,因為這種人有勇無謀,拿自己的生命隨便冒險,我所需用的是辦事小心謹慎,善於籌劃並能認真完成任務的人。”

 

現通常用此典故諷刺那些冒險行事,有勇無謀之人。

Bào hǔFéng hé

Zhège diǎngù jiànyú “lúnyǔ. Shù ér”. Chūnqiū shí, kǒngzǐ de xuéshēng zǐ lù suīrán shēn qiánglì zhuàng, yǒnggǎn wúwèi, dàn zuòshì kǎolǜ bù zhōu, quēshǎo zhìmóu. Wèi cǐ kǒng fūzǐ bù tài xǐhuan zhège xuéshēng, zilù zhīdào hòu xīnlǐ yě bù tài fúqì. Yǒu yīcì, zilù yǒuyì lái xúnwèn kǒngzǐ:”Jiǎruò nǐ lái zhǐhuī jūnduì, nàme nǐ jiāng xū yòng shénme yàng de rén ne?”Kǒngzǐ huídá:”Túshǒu hé lǎohǔ bódòu, túbùguò hé, sǐle dōu bù mányuàn de rén, wǒ Shì bùnéng yòng de, yīnwèi zhè zhǒng rén yǒu yǒng wú móu, ná zìjǐ de shēngmìng suíbiàn màoxiǎn, wǒ suǒ xū yòng de shì bànshì xiǎoxīn jǐnshèn, shànyú chóuhuà bìng néng rènzhēn wánchéng rènwù de rén.” Xiàn tōngcháng yòng cǐ diǎngù fèngcì nàxiē màoxiǎn xíngshì, yǒu yǒng wú móu zhī rén.

Chinese language study HK – Biological and environmental balance of the crisis

Mandarin Lesson

Biological and environmental balance of the crisis

The history of life on earth has been a history of interaction between living things and their surroundings. To a large extent, the physical form and the habits of the earth’s vegetation and its animal life have been molded by the environment. Considering the whole span of earthly time, the opposite effect, in which life actually modifies its surroundings, has been relatively slight. Only in the present century has one species man acquired significant power to alter the nature of his world.

During the past quarter century this power has not only become increasingly great but it has changed in character. The most alarming of all man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrecoverable. In this now universal contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world the very nature of its life. Chemicals sprayed on croplands or forests or gardens lie long in soil, entering into living organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death. Or they pass mysteriously by underground streams until they emerge and combine into new forms that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and work unknown harm on those who drink from once pure wells. “Man can hardly even recognize the devils of his own creation,” as a scientist has said.

 

生物和環境平衡的危機

 

地球上生命的歷史一直就是一部生物與其環境相互作用的歷史。在很大程度上,地球上動植物的形態以及習性都是由外部環境所塑造的。考慮到地球上生命存在的整個時間,相反作用,即生命對其周圍環境的實際改變作用,卻相對很小。只有在當前這個世紀(指20世紀)才有一個物種–人類,獲得了強大的力量,改變了其所生存的世界的自然狀態。

在過去的1/4世紀中,這種力量不僅日趨強大,而且其性質也發生了變化。在人類破壞環境的種種行為中,最令人擔憂的是人類向大氣、土壤、河流以及海洋中排放危險甚至致命物質,而當今這種污染在很大程度上是無法挽救的。在當今這種對環境的普遍污染中,化學製品與輻射狼狽為奸,改變著地球的自然狀態,也就是改變著地球上生命的自然狀態。噴灑到農田、森林或者花園裡的化學物質長期滯留於土壤中,滲入有機體內,並彼此相傳,形成了一個中毒與死亡的鏈條。化學物質還神秘地通過地下水傳遞,最終以新的形式出現並結合,使植物毒死,牲畜害病,並使飲用一度純淨的井水的人遭受了不明之害。正如一位科學家所言:“人類甚至對自己創造的惡魔都不認識。”

 

Shēngwù hé huánjìng pínghéng de wéijī

Dìqiú shàng shēngmìng de lìshǐ yīzhí jiùshì yī bù shēngwù yǔqí huánjìng xiānghù zuòyòng de lìshǐ. Zài hěn dà chéngdù shàng, dìqiú shàng dòng zhíwù de xíngtài yǐjí xíxìng dōu shì yóu wàibù huánjìng suǒ sùzào de. Kǎolǜ dào dìqiú shàng shēngmìng cúnzài de zhěnggè shíjiān, xiāngfǎn zuòyòng, jí shēngmìng duì qí zhōuwéi huánjìng de shíjì gǎibiàn zuòyòng, què xiāngduì hěn xiǎo. Zhǐyǒu zài dāngqián zhège shìjì (zhǐ 20 shìjì) cái yǒu yīgè wùzhǒng–rénlèi, huòdéle qiángdà de lìliàng, gǎibiànle qí suǒ shēngcún de shìjiè de zìrán zhuàngtài. Zài guòqù de 1/4 shìjì zhōng, zhè zhǒng lìliàng bùjǐn rìqū qiángdà, érqiě qí xìngzhì yě fāshēngle biànhuà. Zài rénlèi pòhuài huánjìng de zhǒngzhǒng xíngwéi zhōng, zuì lìng rén dānyōu de shì rénlèi xiàng dàqì, tǔrǎng, héliú yǐjí hǎiyáng zhōng páifàng wéixiǎn shènzhì zhìmìng wùzhí, ér dāngjīn zhè zhǒng wūrǎn zài hěn dà chéngdù shàng shì wúfǎ wǎnjiù de. Zài dāngjīn zhè zhǒng duì huánjìng de pǔbiàn wūrǎn zhōng, huàxué zhìpǐn yǔ fúshè lángbèiwéijiān, gǎi biàn zhuó dìqiú de zìrán zhuàngtài, yě jiùshì gǎi biàn zhuó dìqiú shàng shēngmìng de zìrán zhuàngtài. Pēnsǎ dào nóngtián, sēnlín huòzhě huāyuán lǐ de huàxué wùzhí chángqí zhìliú yú tǔrǎng zhōng, shènrù yǒujī tǐnèi, bìng bǐcǐ xiāngchuán, xíngchéngle yīgè zhòngdú yǔ sǐwáng de liàntiáo. Huàxué wùzhí hái shénmì de tōngguò dìxiàshuǐ chuándì, zuìzhōng yǐ xīn de xíngshì chūxiàn bìng jiéhé, shǐ zhíwù dú sǐ, shēngchù hàibìng, bìng shǐ yǐnyòng yīdù chúnjìng de jǐng shuǐ de rén zāo shòu liǎo bùmíng zhī hài. Zhèngrú yī wèi kēxuéjiā suǒ yán:“Rénlèi shènzhì duì zìjǐ chuàngzào de èmó dōu bù rènshi.”

 

國語教學 -國語班-兵貴神速

Mandarin Lesson

兵貴神速

 

這個典故出自《三國志.魏志.郭嘉傳》。東漢末年,混居在遼西、遼東、右北平(今遼寧)三個郡的烏桓(古代北方一支少數民族)經常進犯中原,燒殺掠奪,危及當地百妖生活和社會穩定。公元207年,漢丞相曹操親自率領十萬大軍北征三郡烏桓,以徹底根除北方的隱患。由於此番出征,曹操的人馬和糧草輜重太多,行軍速度太慢,走了一個月,才到達易城(今河北雄縣)。軍師郭嘉見此情況非常著急,就對曹操說:”用兵貴在行動特別迅速。我們應該趕緊把大量沉重繁雜的物資和行李卸掉,派出輕騎兵日夜兼程前進,這樣才能趁敵不備取得勝利。”曹操採用了他的意見,親自帶領幾千名精兵良將輕裝北進,終於出其不意地消滅了三郡烏桓。

 

現通常用此典故說明打伏用兵貴在行動要特別迅速。

Bīng guì shénsù

Zhège diǎngù chūzì “sānguózhì. Wèi zhì. Guōjiāchuán”. Dōnghàn mònián, hùn jū zài liáoxi, liáodōng, yòu běipíng (jīn liáoníng) sān gè jùn de wū huán (gǔdài běifāng yī zhī shǎoshù mínzú) jīngcháng jìnfàn zhōngyuán, shāo shā lüèduó, wéijí dāngdì bǎi yāo shēnghuó hé shèhuì wěndìng. Gōngyuán 207 nián, hàn chéngxiàng cáocāo qīnzì shuàilǐng shí wàn dàjūn běi zhēng sān jùn wū huán, yǐ chèdǐ gēnchú běifāng de yǐnhuàn. Yóuyú cǐ fān chūzhēng, cáocāo de rénmǎ hé liángcǎo zīzhòng tài duō, xíngjūn sùdù tài màn, zǒuliǎo yīgè yuè, cái dàodá yì chéng (jīn héběi xióng xiàn). Jūnshī guō jiā jiàn cǐ qíngkuàng fēicháng zhāojí, jiù duì cáocāo shuō:”Yòngbīng guì zài háng dòng tèbié xùnsù. Wǒmen yīnggāi gǎnjǐn bǎ dàliàng chénzhòng fánzá de wùzī hé xínglǐ xiè diào, pàichū qīng qíbīng rìyè jiānchéng qiánjìn, zhèyàng cáinéng chèn dí bù bèi qǔdé Shènglì.”Cáocāo cǎiyòngle tā de yìjiàn, qīnzì dàilǐng jǐ qiān míng jīngbīng liángjiāng qīngzhuāng běi jìn, zhōngyú chūqíbùyì dì xiāomièle sān jùn wū huán. Xiàn tōngcháng yòng cǐ diǎngù shuōmíng dǎ fú yòngbīng guì zài háng dòng yào tèbié xùnsù.