Mandarin lesson in hong kong – Sleep

Mandarin Lesson

Sleep

Sleep is part of a person’s daily activity cycle. There are several different stages of sleep, and they too occur in cycles. If you are an average sleeper, your sleep cycle is as follows. When you first drift off into slumber, your eyes will roll about a bit, you temperature will drop slightly, your muscles will relax, and your breathing will slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow down a bit too, with the alpha rhythm of rather fast waves for a few minutes. This is called stage 1 sleep.. For the next half hour or so, as you relax more and more, you will drift down through stage 2 and stage 3 sleep. The lower your stage of sleep. slower your brain waves will be. Then about 40 to 60 minutes after you lose consciousness you will have reached the deepest sleep of all. Your brain will show the large slow waves that are known as the delta rhythm. This is stage 4 sleep.

睡眠

睡眠是人每天日常活動循環的一部分。人的睡眠分幾個階段,而這些階段也是循環發生的。如果你是一個正常的睡眠者,你的睡眠循環會這樣進行。

在你開始昏昏入睡時,你的眼睛會滾動幾下,體溫略有下降,肌肉放鬆,呼吸變得緩慢而有節奏。除了開始幾分鐘比較快的α節奏外,腦電波也稍有減緩。

這被稱為第一階段睡眠。在隨後約半小時內,你進一步放鬆,進入第二和第三階段睡眠。睡眠越深入,腦電波就越緩慢。大約在開始睡眠後的40到60分鐘,你將進入沉睡狀態。這時的腦電波表現為巨大的緩波,被稱為δ節奏。這就是第四階段睡眠。

Shuìmián

Shuìmián shì rén měitiān rìcháng huódòng xúnhuán de yībùfèn. Rén de shuìmián fēn jǐ gè jiēduàn, ér zhèxiē jiēduàn yěshì xúnhuán fāshēng de. Rúguǒ nǐ shì yīgè zhèngcháng de shuìmián zhě, nǐ de shuìmián xúnhuán huì zhèyàng jìnxíng. Zài nǐ kāishǐ hūn hūn rùshuì shí, nǐ de yǎnjīng huì gǔndòng jǐ xià, tǐwēn lüè yǒu xiàjiàng, jīròu fàngsōng, hūxī biàn de huǎnmàn ér yǒu jiézòu. Chúle kāishǐ jǐ fēnzhōng bǐjiào kuài de a jiézòu wài, nǎo diànbō yě shāo yǒu jiǎnhuǎn. Zhè bèi chēng wèi dì yī jiēduàn shuìmián. Zài suíhòu yuē bàn xiǎoshí nèi, nǐ jìnyībù fàngsōng, jìnrù dì èr hé dì sān jiēduàn shuìmián. Shuìmián yuè shēnrù, nǎo diànbō jiù yuè huǎnmàn. Dàyuē zài kāishǐ shuìmián hòu de 40 dào 60 fēnzhōng, nǐ jiāng jìnrù chénshuì zhuàngtài. Zhè shí de nǎo diànbō biǎoxiàn wèi jùdà de huǎn bō, bèi chēng wèi d jiézòu. Zhè jiùshì dì sì jiēduàn shuìmián.

語言中心-國語拼音 -不欺暗室

Mandarin Lesson

不欺暗室

   這個典故見於《後漢書.列女傳》。春秋時,有一天晚上衛靈公(姬元)正坐在宮里和他的夫人南子閒談,突然聽見有馬車行駛的聲音從東邊傳過來,越來越響,大概到宮門前卻不響了,過了一會兒又響著朝西邊去了,衛靈公問南子:”這是怎麼回事呢?”南子說:”這是一輛馬車從東邊走過宮門前往西邊去,坐車的人可能是大夫蘧伯玉。”衛靈公又問:”你怎麼知道是他的馬車過去了?”南子回答:”我了解到,凡屬臣子走過王宮的六前,都有下車致敬的禮節。忠臣孝子,既不在大庭廣眾面前故意做一個樣子給大家看,也不在人的地方忽視自己應該有的行為。蘧伯玉是我國有名的賢才,最懂得遵守禮節的規矩了。雖然是在夜行車,但他還是照例停下車來表示敬意。因此我說坐馬車的人是蘧伯玉。”衛靈公不相信南子的話,派人去調查,果然不假。但他故意欺騙南子:”我派人去調查過了,剛才是有一輛馬車路過宮門前,有一個人在宮門前下車致敬,但那個人不是蘧伯玉。”南子一聽這話,馬上斟滿了一杯酒,恭敬地捧給衛靈公,向他祝賀。衛靈公給弄糊塗了,問:”你這是什麼意思呀?”南子高興地說:”原來我以為衛國祇有一個賢臣蘧伯玉,現才才懂得還有一個和他一樣的賢臣。這樣一來,你至少已有了兩位忠臣了,忠臣越多越好,我豈能不向你祝賀呢?”衛靈公心裡清楚他並沒有多一位忠臣,但還是把南子遞給他的酒喝乾了,而後又是驚奇、又是誇獎地說:”你真了不起啊”接著把剛才派人調查到的實際情況跟南子說明了。

   現一般用此典故說明人在沒有任何人看見或知道的情況下,也不做不應該做的事情。

Bù qī ànshì

Zhège diǎngù jiànyú “hòuhàn shū. Liè nǚ chuán”. Chūnqiū shí, yǒu yītiān wǎnshàng wèi líng gōng (jī yuán) zhèng zuò zài gōng lǐ hé tā de fūrén nán zi xiántán, túrán tīngjiàn yǒu mǎchē xíngshǐ de shēngyīn cóng dōngbian chuán guòlái, yuè lái yuè xiǎng, dàgài dào gōng mén qián què bù Xiǎngle,guòle yīhuǐ’er yòu xiǎngzhe cháo xībian qùle, wèi líng gōng wèn nán zi:”Zhè shì zěnme huí shì ne?”Nán zi shuō:”Zhè shì yī liàng mǎchē cóng dōngbian zǒuguò gōng mén qiánwǎng xībian qù, Zuòchē de rén kěnéng shì dàfū qú bó yù.”Wèi líng gōng yòu wèn:”Nǐ zěnme zhīdào shì tā de mǎchē guòqùle?”Nán zǐ huídá:”Wǒ liǎojiě dào, fán shǔ chénzǐ zǒuguò wánggōng de liù qián, dōu yǒu Xià chē zhìjìng de lǐjié. Zhōngchén xiàozǐ, jì bùzài dàtíngguǎngzhòng miànqián gùyì zuò yīgè yàngzi gěi dàjiā kàn, yě bùzài rén dì dìfāng hūshì zìjǐ yīnggāi yǒu de xíngwéi. Qú bó yù shì wǒguó yǒumíng de xián cái, zuì dǒngde zūnshǒu lǐjié de guījǔle . Suīrán shì zài yèxíng chē, dàn tā háishì zhàolì tíng xià chē lái biǎoshì jìngyì. Yīncǐ wǒ shuō zuò mǎchē de rén shì qú bó yù.”Wèi líng gōng bù xiāngxìn nán zi dehuà, pài rén qù diàochá, guǒrán bù jiǎ. Dàn tā gùyì qīpiàn nán zi:”Wǒ pài rén qù diàocháguòle, gāngcái shì yǒuyī liàng mǎchē lùguò gōng mén qián, yǒuyī gèrén zài gōng mén qián xià chē zhìjìng, dàn nàgè rén bùshì qú bó yù.”Nán zi yī tīng zhè Huà, mǎshàng zhēn mǎnle yībēi jiǔ, gōngjìng de pěng gěi wèi líng gōng, xiàng tā zhùhè. Wèi líng gōng gěi nòng hútúle, wèn:”Nǐ zhè shì shénme yìsi ya?”Nán zi gāoxìng de shuō:”Yuánlái wǒ yǐwéi wèi guó zhǐyǒu yīgè xián chén qú bó yù, xiàn cái cái dǒngde hái yǒu yīgè hé tā yīyàng de Xián chén. Zhèyàng yī lái, nǐ zhìshǎo yǐ yǒule liǎng wèi zhōngchénle, zhōngchén yuè duō yuè hǎo, wǒ qǐ néng bù xiàng nǐ zhùhè ne?”Wèi líng gōng xīnlǐ qīngchu tā bìng méiyǒu duō yī wèi zhōngchén, dàn háishì bǎ nán Zi dì gěi tā de jiǔ hē gànle, érhòu yòu shì jīngqí, yòu shì kuājiǎng de shuō:”Nǐ zhēn liǎobùqǐ a”jiēzhe bǎ gāngcái pài rén diàochá dào de shíjì qíngkuàng gēn nán zi shuōmíngliǎo. Xiàn yībān yòng cǐ diǎngù shuōmíng rén zài méiyǒu rènhé rén kànjiàn huò zhīdào de qíngkuàng xià, yě bù zuò bù yìng gāi zuò de shìqíng.

learn chinese in hong kong – Bacteria

Mandarin Lesson

Bacteria

Bacteria are extremely small living things. While we measure our own sizes in inches or centimeters, bacterial size is measured in microns. One micron is a thousandth of a millimeter: a pinhead is about a millimeter across. Rod-shaped bacteria are usually from two to four microns long, while rounded ones are generally one micron in diameter. Thus if you enlarged a rounded bacterium a thousand times, it would be just about the size of a pinhead. An adult human magnified by the same amount would be over a mile(1.6 kilometer) tall.

 

Even with an ordinary microscope, you must look closely to see bacteria. Using a magnification of 100 times, one finds that bacteria are barely visible as tiny rods or dots. One cannot make out anything of their structure. Using special stains, one can see that some bacteria have attached to them wavy-looking “hairs” called flagella. Others have only one flagellum. The flagella rotate, pushing the bacteria through the water. Many bacteria lack flagella and cannot move about by their own power, while others can glide along over surfaces by some little-understood mechanism.

細菌

細菌是極其微小的生物體。我們用英寸或厘米來測量自己的大小,而測量細菌卻要用微米。一微米等於千分之一毫米。針頭直徑大約一毫米。棒狀細菌通常有2~4微米長,而圓形細菌的直徑一般只有1微米。因此,即使你把一個圓形細菌放大1000倍,它也不過一個針頭那麼大。可是如果把一個成年人放大1000倍,就會變成1英里(或1.6公里)多高。

用一般的顯微鏡觀察細菌時,你必須仔細觀察才能看見它們。使用100倍的顯微鏡時,你會發現細菌不過是隱約可見的小細棒或小點點,而它們的結構你卻根本看不出來。使用特殊的著色劑後,你會發現有的細菌上長著不少波狀的”毛髮”即鞭毛,而有的細菌只有一根鞭毛。鞭毛的旋轉可以推動細菌在水中行進。不少細菌沒有鞭毛,因而不能自己行進。還有些細菌卻能通過某些鮮為人知的機制沿物體表面滑動。

Xìjùn

Xìjùn shì jíqí wéixiǎo de shēngwù tǐ. Wǒmen yòng yīngcùn huò límǐ lái cèliáng zìjǐ de dàxiǎo, ér cèliáng xìjùn què yào yòng wéimǐ. Yī wéimǐ děngyú qiān fēn zhī yī háomǐ. Zhēntóu zhíjìng dàyuē yī háomǐ. Bàngzhuàng xìjùn tōngcháng yǒu 2~4 wéimǐ zhǎng, ér yuán xíng xìjùn de zhíjìng yībān zhǐyǒu 1 wéimǐ. Yīncǐ, jíshǐ nǐ bǎ yīgè yuán xíng xìjùn fàngdà 1000 bèi, tā yě bùguò yīgè zhēntóu nàme dà. Kěshì rúguǒ bǎ yīgè chéngnián rén fàngdà 1000 bèi, jiù huì biàn chéng 1 yīnglǐ (huò 1.6 Gōnglǐ) duō gāo. Yòng yībān de xiǎnwéijìng guānchá xìjùn shí, nǐ bìxū zǐxì guānchá cáinéng kànjiàn tāmen. Shǐyòng 100 bèi de xiǎnwéijìng shí, nǐ huì fāxiàn xìjùn bùguò shì yǐnyuē kějiàn de xiǎo xì bàng huò xiǎo diǎndiǎn, ér tāmen de jiégòu nǐ què gēnběn kàn bù chūlái. Shǐyòng tèshū de zhuósè jì hòu, nǐ huì fāxiàn yǒu de xìjùn shàng zhǎngzhe bù shǎo bōzhuàng de”máofǎ”jí biānmáo, ér yǒu de xìjùn zhǐyǒu yī gēn biānmáo. Biānmáo de xuánzhuǎn kěyǐ tuīdòng xìjùn zài shuǐzhōng xíngjìn. Bù shǎo xìjùn méiyǒu biānmáo, yīn’ér bùnéng zìjǐ xíngjìn. Hái yǒuxiē xìjùn què néng tōngguò mǒu xiē xiǎn wéi rénzhī de jīzhì yán wùtǐ biǎomiàn huádòng.

初級普通話-普通話讀音-不辨菽麥

Mandarin Lesson

不辨菽麥

 

這個典故見於《春秋左傳.成公十八年》。晉國欒書、中行偃由於厲公(姬州蒲)治國無道,便指使程滑在公元前573年把厲公殺掉。然後派士魴到周朝京城去迎接晉襄公的曾孫周子回來繼承君位。這年孫周才十四歲,但很能幹,又有口才。雖然他有一個哥哥,按時封建制度傳統的禮法,應立長子為君。但由於他的哥哥不聰明,連豆子和麥子都不會辨認,所以晉國的貴族沒有扶立他為國君。當孫周和士魴等一起回到晉國屬地(今山西)時,碰見趕去迎接他的很多晉國官員,周子就說:”我原本不想繼承君位,現在有了,這或許是天意吧?人們扶立國君,為的是要他主持政務,發號施令,假若立了國君,但不聽從他的命令,那要國君有什麼用?你們能否擁護我都要在今天明確表示態度。只有大家團結起來服從國君的領導,晉國才會有幸福的生活。”官員們一聽連忙恭敬地回答:”晉國所有的臣子全都盼望你回去繼承君位,怎敢不絕對聽從你的指揮? “於是周子回到晉國做了國君,稱悼公。他大刀闊斧地撤換了一些不稱職的官員,任用了一些有賢之士,並按照當時的政治、經濟、社會情況,制訂了不少革新的製度,公佈了一批革新的法令,從此晉國漸漸強盛起來了。

 

現在般用此典故諷刺那些頭腦愚昧、實際知識淺薄的人。

Bù biàn shū mài

Zhège diǎngù jiànyú “chūnqiū zuǒ chuán. Chéng gōng shíbā nián”. Jìn guó luán shū, zhōngxíng yǎn yóuyú lì gōng (jī zhōu pú) zhìguó wú dào, biàn zhǐshǐ chéng huá zài gōngyuán qián 573 nián bǎ lì gōng shā diào. Ránhòu pài shì fáng dào zhōu cháo jīngchéng qù yíngjiē jìn xiānggōng de zēngsūn zhōu zǐ huílái jìchéng jūn wèi. Zhè nián sūnzhōucái shísì suì, dàn hěn nénggàn, yòu yǒu kǒucái. Suīrán tā yǒu yīgè gēgē, ànshí fēngjiàn zhìdù chuántǒng de lǐfǎ, yīng lì zhǎngzǐ wèi jūn. Dàn yóuyú tā dí gēgē bù cōngmíng, lián dòuzi hé màizi dōu bù huì biànrèn, suǒyǐ jìn guó de guìzú méiyǒu fú lì tā wèi guójūn. Dāng sūn zhōu hé shì fáng děng yīqǐ huí dào jìn guó shǔdì (jīn shānxī) shí, pèngjiàn gǎn qù yíngjiē tā de hěnduō jìn guó guānyuán, zhōuzi jiù shuō:”Wǒ yuánběn bùxiǎng jìchéng jūn wèi, xiànzài yǒule, zhè huòxǔ shì tiānyì Ba? Rénmen fú lìguójūn, wèi de shì yào tā zhǔchí zhèngwù, fāhàoshīlìng, jiǎruò lìle guójūn, dàn bù tīngcóng tā de mìnglìng, nà yào guó jūn yǒu shé me yòng? Nǐmen néng fǒu yǒnghù wǒ dū yào zài jīntiān míngquè biǎoshì tàidù. Zhǐyǒu Dàjiā tuánjié qǐlái fúcóng guójūn de lǐngdǎo, jìn guó cái huì yǒu xìngfú de shēnghuó.”Guānyuánmen yī tīng liánmáng gōngjìng de huídá:”Jìn guó suǒyǒu de chénzǐ quándōu pànwàng nǐ huíqù jìchéng jūn wèi, zěn gǎn bù juéduì tīngcóng nǐ de zhǐhuī? “Yúshì zhōu zǐ huí dào jìn guó zuòle guójūn, chēng dào gōng. Tā dàdāokuòfǔ de chèhuànle yīxiē bù chènzhí de guānyuán, rènyòngle yīxiē yǒu xián zhī shì, bìng ànzhào dāngshí de zhèngzhì, jīngjì, shèhuì qíngkuàng, zhì dìng liǎo bù shǎo géxīn de zhìdù, gōngbùle yī pī géxīn de fǎlìng, cóngcǐ jìn guó jiànjiàn Qiángshèng qǐláile. Xiànzài bān yòng cǐ diǎngù fèngcì nàxiē tóunǎo yúmèi, shíjì zhīshì qiǎnbó de rén.

learn mandarin hong kong – Exports

Mandarin Lesson

Exports

Exports are either raw materials or manufactured goods. Raw materials are products of the land, such as cotton, timber or rubber. Some raw materials, such as iron ore, come from mines.  These raw materials are often exported by the countries that produce them to other countries where they are made into manufactured goods.

Some countries produce food for export, for example, meat, sugar, or cereals such as wheat and maize. These countries are agricultural countries. An agricultural country needs fertile land and a good climate. A cold, dry climate is not suitable for agriculture.

A country which produces manufactured goods is known as an industrialized  country. An industrialized  country cannot always produce enough food for its own needs. In this case, it does not export foodstuffs. Instead it has to import them. It relies on exports of manufactured products and pays for imports with the money it earns from the exported goods.

出口

 

出口貨物既有原材料,也有製成品.原材料是從土里長出來的產品,如棉花、木材或橡膠;有些原材料,如鐵礦等,是從礦山里開采出來的。這些原材料往往從原產地國家出口到生產製成品的國家。

有些國家生產食物出口,例如肉類、糖等,或者是小麥、玉米等穀物。這些國家屬於農業國,農業國需要肥沃的土地和宜人的氣候。寒冷乾燥的氣候對農作物的生長不適宜。

生產製成品的國家被稱為工業化國家,一個工業化國家生產的食物往往不能滿足本國的需要。在這種情況下,它就不會出口食物,而是進口食物。這樣的國家依賴製成品的出口,並用出口掙得的錢支付進口費用。

Chūkǒu

Chūkǒu huòwù jì yǒu yuáncáiliào, yěyǒu zhì chéng pǐn. Yuáncáiliào shì cóng tǔ lǐ cháng chūlái de chǎnpǐn, rú miánhuā, mùcái huò xiàngjiāo; yǒuxiē yuáncáiliào, rú tiě kuàng děng, shì cóng kuàngshān li kāicǎi chūlái de. Zhèxiē yuáncáiliào wǎngwǎng cóng yuán chǎndì guójiā chūkǒu dào shēngchǎn zhì chéng pǐn de guójiā. Yǒuxiē guójiā shēngchǎn shíwù chūkǒu, lìrú ròu lèi, táng děng, huòzhě shì xiǎomài, yùmǐ děng gǔwù. Zhèxiē guójiā shǔyú nóngyè guó, nóngyè guó xūyào féiwò de tǔdì hé yírén de qìhòu. Hánlěng gānzào de qìhòu duì nóngzuòwù de shēng cháng bù shìyí. Shēngchǎn zhì chéng pǐn de guójiā bèi chēng wèi gōngyèhuà guójiā, yīgè gōngyèhuà guójiā shēngchǎn de shíwù wǎngwǎng bùnéng mǎnzú běnguó de xūyào. Zài zhè zhǒng qíngkuàng xià, tā jiù bù huì chūkǒu shíwù, ér shì jìnkǒu shíwù. Zhèyàng de guójiā yīlài zhì chéng pǐn de chūkǒu, bìngyòng chūkǒu zhēng dé de qián zhīfù jìnkǒu fèiyòng.

普通話讀音 -國語班-成也蕭何,敗也蕭何

Mandarin Lesson

成也蕭何,敗也蕭何

 

這個典故見於司馬遷的《史記.淮陰侯傳》。秦朝末年,項羽、劉邦起兵反秦。淮陰人韓信出身貧寒,很多人都瞧不起他,先投項羽羽未受重用,又投劉邦只當了一個治粟都尉(伙頭軍),不能施展其才智。劉邦的智囊蕭何和韓信談話後,非常欽佩,認為韓信是個卓越的軍事人才。韓信又一次因未受重用而逃走。蕭何聽說韓信走了,親自連夜追趕,把韓信請回來,又建議劉邦拜韓信為大將軍。劉邦非常相信蕭何,就選擇吉日舉行儀式。韓信把整個形勢和自己的計劃談出來,劉邦聽了非常滿意。最後劉邦終於消滅和收降魏、趙、燕、齊諸國和楚國,統一天下,成立漢朝。劉邦當了皇帝,蕭何做丞相,這時劉邦對韓信卻不放心了,先解除其兵權,後又入獄,赦免後由”楚王”改封”淮陰侯”。最後由呂后和蕭何把韓信騙進宮中殺死。

 

這個典故是說:成事的人是蕭何,壞事的人也是蕭何。事情的成敗完全出自一個人的策劃。

Chéng yě xiāohé, bài yě xiāohé

Zhège diǎngù jiànyú sīmǎqiān de “shǐjì. Huáiyīn hóu chuán”. Qín cháo mònián, xiàngyǔ, liúbāng qǐbīng fǎn qín. Huáiyīn rén hánxìn chūshēn pínhán, hěnduō rén dōu qiáobùqǐ tā, xiān tóu xiàngyǔ yǔ wèi shòu zhòngyòng, yòu tóu liúbāng zhǐ dāngle yīgè zhì sù dū wèi (huǒ tóu jūn), bùnéng shīzhǎn qí cáizhì. Liúbāng de zhìnáng xiāohé hé hánxìn tánhuà hòu, fēicháng qīnpèi, rènwéi hánxìn shìgè zhuóyuè de jūnshì réncái. Hánxìn yòu yīcì yīn wèi shòu zhòngyòng ér táozǒu. Xiāohé tīng shuō hánxìn zǒuliǎo, qīnzì liányè zhuīgǎn, bǎ hánxìn qǐng huílái, yòu jiànyì liúbāng bài hánxìn wéi dà jiàng jūn. Liúbāng fēicháng xiāngxìn xiāohé, jiù xuǎnzé jírì jǔxíng yíshì. Hánxìn bǎ zhěnggè xíngshì hé zìjǐ de jìhuà tán chūlái, liúbāng tīngle fēicháng mǎnyì. Zuìhòu liúbāng zhōngyú xiāomiè hé shōu jiàng wèi, zhào, yàn, qí zhū guó hé chu guó, tǒngyī tiānxià, chénglì hàn cháo. Liúbāng dāngle huángdì, xiāohé zuò chéngxiàng, zhè shí liúbāng duì hánxìn què bù fàngxīnle, xiān jiěchú qí bīngquán, hòu yòu rù yù, shèmiǎn hòu yóu”chu wáng”gǎi fēng”huáiyīn hóu”. Zuìhòu yóu lǚ hòu hé xiāohé bǎ hánxìn piàn jìn gōng zhōng shā sǐ. Zhège diǎngù shì shuō: Chéngshì de rén shì xiāohé, huàishì de rén yěshì xiāohé. Shìqíng de chéngbài wánquán chūzì yīgè rén de cèhuà.

Chinese language study HK – The source of Energy

Mandarin Lesson

The source of Energy

A summary of the physical and chemical nature of life must begin, not on the Earth, but in the Sun; in fact, at the Sun’s very center. It is here that is to be found the source of the energy that the Sun constantly pours out into space as light and heat. This energy is liberated at the center of the Sun as billions upon billions of nuclei of hydrogen atoms collide with each other and fuse together to form nuclei of helium, and in doing so, release some of the energy that is stored in the nuclei of atoms. The output of light and heat of the Sun requires that some 600 million tons of hydrogen be converted into helium in the Sun every second. This the Sun has been doing for several thousands of millions of year.

 

The nuclear energy is released at the Sun’s center as high-energy gamma radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation like light and radio waves, only of very much shorter wavelength. This gamma radiation is absorbed by atoms inside the Sun to be reemitted at slightly longer wavelengths. This radiation , in its turn is absorbed and reemitted. As the energy filters through the layers of the solar interior, it passes through the X-ray part of the spectrum eventually becoming light. At this stage, it has reached what we call the solar surface, and can escape into space without being absorbed further by solar atoms. A very small fraction of the Sun’s light and heat is emitted in such directions that after passing unhindered through interplanetary space, it hits the Earth.

能量的來源

說生命的物理和化學特性必須始於太陽–確切地說,是太陽的核心,而非地球。能量來自太陽的核心。在這裡,太陽不停地以光和熱的形式向空間傾瀉出能量。數十億計的氫原子核在太陽的核心碰撞並且聚變生成氦。在此過程中一部分原本儲存於原子核中的能量被釋放出來。太陽所產生的光和熱需要每秒將六億噸氫轉化為氦。這樣的轉化在太陽中

已經持續幾十億年了。

核能在太陽的核心被釋放為高能的伽馬射線。這是一種電磁射線,就像光波和無線電波一樣,只是波長要短得多。這種伽瑪射線被太陽內的原子所吸收,然後重新釋放為波長稍長一些的光波。這新的射線再次被吸收,而後釋放。在能量由太陽內部一層層滲透出來的過程中,它經過了光譜中X射線部分,最後變成了光。在此階段,能量到達我們所稱的太陽表層,並且離散到空間而不再被太陽原子所吸收。只有很小一部分太陽的光和熱由此方向釋放出來,並且未被阻擋,穿越星空,來到地球。

Néngliàng de láiyuán

Shuō shēngmìng de wùlǐ hé huàxué tèxìng bìxū shǐ yú tàiyáng–quèqiè de shuō, shì tàiyáng de héxīn, ér fēi dìqiú. Néngliàng láizì tàiyáng de héxīn. Zài zhèlǐ, tàiyáng bù tíng de yǐ guāng hé rè de xíngshì xiàng kōngjiān qīngxiè chū néngliàng. Shù shí yì jì de qīng yuánzǐhé zài tàiyáng de héxīn pèngzhuàng bìngqiě jùbiàn shēngchéng hài. Zài cǐ guòchéng zhōng yībùfèn yuánběn chúcún yú yuánzǐhé zhōng de néngliàng bèi shìfàng chūlái. Tàiyáng suǒ chǎnshēng de guāng hé rè xūyào měi miǎo jiāng liù yì dūn qīng zhuǎnhuà wéi hài. Zhèyàng de zhuǎnhuà zài tàiyáng zhōng Yǐjīng chíxù jǐ shí yì niánle. Hénéng zài tàiyáng de héxīn bèi shìfàng wèi gāonéng de jiā mǎ shèxiàn. Zhè shì yī zhǒng diàncí shèxiàn, jiù xiàng guāngbō hé wúxiàndiàn bō yīyàng, zhǐshì bōcháng yào duǎn de duō. Zhè zhǒng jiā mǎ shèxiàn bèi tàiyáng nèi de yuánzǐ suǒ xīshōu, ránhòu chóngxīn shìfàng wèi bōcháng shāo zhǎng yīxiē de guāngbō. Zhè xīn de shèxiàn zàicì bèi xīshōu, érhòu shìfàng. Zài néngliàng yóu tàiyáng nèibù yī céng céng shèntòu chūlái de guòchéng zhōng, tā jīngguòle guāngpǔ zhōng X shèxiàn bùfèn, zuìhòu biàn chéngle guāng. Zài cǐ jiēduàn, néngliàng dàodá wǒmen suǒ chēng de tàiyáng biǎocéng, bìngqiě lísàn dào kōngjiān ér bù zài bèi tàiyáng yuánzǐ suǒ xīshōu. Zhǐyǒu hěn xiǎo yībùfèn tàiyáng de guāng hé rè yóu cǐ fāngxiàng shìfàng chūlái, bìngqiě wèi bèi zǔdǎng, chuānyuè xīngkōng, lái dào dìqiú.

拼音班-普通話老師 -不以一眚掩大德

Mandarin Lesson

不以一眚掩大德

   這個典故見於《左傳.僖公三十三年》。春秋時期,秦國國君秦穆公沒有聽從大夫蹇叔的勸阻,於公元前627年命大將孟明視、西乞術、白乙丙率領軍隊討伐鄭國。在班師回朝經過崤山(今河南陝縣東)時,被晉軍偷襲成功,全軍覆滅,三位將領也被捕獲。晉襄公本想殺掉這三人,但他的母親認為此舉不仁,便釋放了這三位大將。孟明視等三人回到秦國時,秦穆公身穿喪服到城外迎接,孟三人趕緊跪在地上,請求軍法處之。但秦穆公連忙扶他們起來,說:”我沒有聽蹇叔的忠告,使你們打了敗仗,受了污辱,這件事的責任應由我來承擔,怎麼能怨你們呢?再說,你們幾個人從前都立過戰功打過不少勝仗,我決不能因為你們一時的過錯就抹煞過去的功績啊。”孟明視等人感動得涕流滿面,對秦穆公更加忠貞不貳。秦穆公繼續重用這幾位大將。不久經過認真準備,孟明視等武將又兩次率領軍隊討伐晉國,終於打敗了晉國的軍隊,報了崤山的一箭之仇。

   現一般用此典故比喻不因為一個人有個別的錯誤而抹煞他的大功績。

Bù yǐ yī shěng yǎn dà dé

Zhège diǎngù jiànyú “zuǒ chuán. Xī gōng sānshísān nián”. Chūnqiū shíqí, qín guó guójūn qín mùgōng méiyǒu tīngcóng dàfū jiǎn shū de quànzǔ, yú gōngyuán qián 627 nián mìng dàjiàng mèng míng shì, xi qǐ shù, bái yǐ bǐng shuàilǐng jūnduì tǎofá zhèng guó. Zài bānshī huí cháo jīngguò xiáo shān (jīn hénán shǎn xiàn dōng) shí, bèi jìn jūn tōuxí chénggōng, quán jūn fùmiè, sān wèi jiànglǐng yě bèi bǔhuò. Jìn xiānggōng běn xiǎng shā diào zhè sān rén, dàn tā de mǔqīn rènwéi cǐ jǔ bùrén, biàn shìfàngle zhè sān wèi dàjiàng. Mèng míng shì děng sān rén huí dào qínguóshí, qín mùgōng shēn chuān sāngfú dào chéng wài yíngjiē, mèng sān rén gǎnjǐn guì zài dìshàng, qǐngqiú jūnfǎ chǔ zhī. Dàn qín mùgōng liánmáng fú tāmen qǐlái, shuō:”Wǒ méiyǒu tīng jiǎn shū de zhōnggào, shǐ nǐmen dǎle bàizhàng, shòule wūrù, zhè jiàn shì de zérèn yīng yóu wǒ lái chéngdān, zěnme néng yuàn nǐmen ne? Zàishuō, nǐmen jǐ Gèrén cóngqián dōulìguò zhàngōng dǎguò bu shǎo shèngzhàng, wǒ jué bùnéng yīnwèi nǐmen yīshí de guòcuò jiù mǒshā guòqù de gōngjī a.”Mèng míng shì děng rén gǎndòng de tì liú mǎnmiàn, duì qín mùgōng gèngjiā zhōngzhēn bù èr. Qín mùgōng jìxù zhòngyòng zhè jǐ wèi dàjiàng. Bùjiǔ jīngguò rènzhēn zhǔnbèi, mèng míng shì děng wǔjiàng yòu liǎng cì shuàilǐng jūnduì tǎofá jìn guó, zhōngyú dǎbàile jìn guó de jūnduì, bàole xiáo shān de yī jiàn zhī chóu. Xiàn yībān yòng cǐ diǎngù bǐyù bù yīn wéi yīgè rén yǒu gèbié de cuòwù ér mǒshā tā de dà gōngjī.

Mandarin lesson in hong kong – Human visual


Mandarin Lesson
Human visual
Human vision like that of other primates has evolved in an arboreal environment. In the dense complex world of a tropical forest, it is more important to see well than to develop an acute sense of smell. In the course of evolution members of the primate line have acquired large eyes while the snout has shrunk to give the eye an unimpeded view. Of mammals only humans and some primates enjoy color vision. The red flag is black to the bull. Horses live in a monochrome world .light visible to human eyes however occupies only a very narrow band in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to humans though ants and honeybees are sensitive to them. Humans though ants and honeybees are sensitive to them. Humans have no direct perception of infrared rays unlike the rattlesnake which has receptors tuned into wavelengths longer than 0.7 micron. The world would look eerily different if human eyes were sensitive to infrared radiation. Then instead of the darkness of night, we would be able to move easily in a strange shadowless world where objects glowed with varying degrees of intensity. But human eyes excel in other ways. They are in fact remarkably discerning in color gradation. The color sensitivity of normal human vision is rarely surpassed even by sophisticated technical devices.
人類的視覺
人類的視覺,和其它靈長目動物的一樣,是在叢林環境中進化出來的。在稠密、複雜的熱帶叢林裡,好的視覺比靈敏的嗅覺更加重要。在進化過程中,靈長目動物的眼睛變大,同時鼻子變小以使視野不受阻礙。在哺乳類動物中,只有人和一些靈長目動物能夠分辨顏色。紅旗在公牛看來是黑色的,馬則生活在一個單色的世界裡。然而,人眼可見的光在整個光譜中只佔一個非常狹窄的頻段。人是看不到紫外線的,儘管螞蟻和蜜蜂可以感覺到。與響尾蛇不同,人也不能直接感受到紅外線。響尾蛇的感覺器可以感受波長超過0.7微米的光線。如果人能感受到紅外線的話,這世界看上去將十分不同,而且恐怖。到那時,將與夜的黑暗相反,我們能輕易地在一個奇異的沒有陰影的世界裡走動。任何物體都強弱不等地閃著光。然而,人眼在其它方面有優越之處。事實上,人眼對顏色梯度具有非凡的分辨能力。普通人類的視覺感受色彩的靈敏程度,甚至連精密的技術裝備都很難超越。
Rénlèi de shìjué
Rénlèi de shìjué, hé qítā língchángmù dòngwù de yīyàng, shì zài cónglín huánjìng zhōng jìnhuà chūlái de. Zài chóumì, fùzá de rèdài cónglín lǐ, hǎo de shìjué bǐ língmǐn de xiùjué gèngjiā zhòngyào. Zài jìnhuà guòchéng zhōng, língchángmù dòngwù de yǎnjīng biàn dà, tóngshí bízi biàn xiǎo yǐ shǐ shìyě bù shòu zǔ’ài. Zài bǔrǔ lèi dòngwù zhòng, zhǐyǒu rén hé yīxiē língchángmù dòngwù nénggòu fēnbiàn yánsè. Hóngqí zài gōngniú kàn lái shì hēisè de, mǎ zé shēnghuó zài yīgè dān sè de shìjiè lǐ. Rán’ér, rén yǎn kějiàn de guāng zài zhěnggè guāngpǔ zhōng zhǐ zhàn yīgè fēicháng xiázhǎi de pínduàn. Rén shì kàn bù dào zǐwàixiàn de, jǐnguǎn mǎyǐ hé mìfēng kěyǐ gǎnjué dào. Yǔ xiǎngwěishé bùtóng, rén yě bùnéng zhíjiē gǎnshòu dào hóngwàixiàn. Xiǎngwěishé de gǎnjué qì kěyǐ gǎnshòu bōcháng chāoguò 0.7 Wéimǐ de guāngxiàn. Rúguǒ rén néng gǎnshòu dào hóngwàixiàn dehuà, zhè shìjiè kàn shàngqù jiāng shífēn bùtóng, érqiě kǒngbù. Dào nà shí, jiāng yǔ yè de hēi’àn xiāngfǎn, wǒmen néng qīngyì dì zài yīgè qíyì de méiyǒu yīnyǐng de shìjiè lǐ zǒudòng. Rènhé wùtǐ dōu qiáng ruò bù děng dì shǎnzhe guāng. Rán’ér, rén yǎn zài qítā fāngmiàn yǒu yōuyuè zhī chù. Shìshí shàng, rén yǎn duì yánsè tīdù jùyǒu fēifán de fēnbiàn nénglì. Pǔtōng rénlèi de shìjué gǎnshòu sècǎi de língmǐn chéngdù, shènzhì lián jīngmì de jìshù zhuāngbèi dōu hěn nán chāoyuè.

初級普通話 -學普通話課程-不舞之鶴

Mandarin Lesson

不舞之鶴

 

這個典故源於《世說新語.排調》。東晉有個叫劉遵祖的人年青時很被朝廷的官員殷浩賞識。殷浩便向中書令(官職名)庾亮推舉。庾亮一聽很高興,就召來劉遵祖做自己的助手。見面之後,庾亮跟他談話。但這天劉遵祖的言談舉止與殷浩介紹的很不相稱,庾亮感到有些失望,就把劉遵祖比作”羊公鶴”。因為過去西晉時,荊州(今湖北)長官羊祜養有一隻鶴,很會舞蹈。有一次,羊祜向客人稱道這只鶴的本事。客人說:”那就欣賞一下吧。”但鶴來了後,羽毛鬆散,一副懶散的樣子,遲遲不肯起舞。所以庾亮用其來比劉遵祖。

 

現通常用此典故比喻他人或自己無能。

Bù wǔ zhī hè

Zhège diǎngù yuán yú “shì shuō xīn yǔ. Pái diào”. Dōngjìn yǒu gè jiào liúzūnzǔ de rén niánqīng shí hěn bèi cháotíng de guānyuán yīn hào shǎngshì. Yīn hào biàn xiàng zhōng shū lìng (guānzhí míng) yǔ liàng tuījǔ. Yǔ liàngyī tīng hěn gāoxìng, jiù zhào lái liúzūnzǔ zuò zìjǐ de zhùshǒu. Jiànmiàn zhīhòu, yǔ liàng gēn tā tánhuà. Dàn zhè tiān liúzūnzǔ de yántán jǔzhǐ yǔ yīn hào jièshào de hěn bù xiāngchèn, yǔ liàng gǎndào yǒuxiē shīwàng, jiù bǎ liúzūnzǔ bǐ zuò”yáng gōng hè”. Yīn wéi guòqù xījìn shí, jīngzhōu (jīn húběi) zhǎngguān yáng hù yǎng yǒuyī zhǐ hè, hěn huì wǔdǎo. Yǒu yīcì, yáng hù xiàng kèrén chēngdào zhè zhǐ hè de běnshì. Kèrén shuō:”Nà jiù xīnshǎng yīxià ba.”Dàn hè láile hòu, yǔmáo sōngsǎn, yī fù lǎnsǎn de yàngzi, chí chí bù kěn qǐwǔ. Suǒyǐ yǔ liàng yòng qí lái bǐ liúzūnzǔ. Xiàn tōngcháng yòng cǐ diǎngù bǐyù tārén huò zìjǐ wúnéng.