Chinese language study HK -Winter Solstice

Mandarin Lesson

As early as 2,500 years ago, about the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC), China had determined the point of Winter Solstice by observing movements of the sun with a sundial. It is the earliest of the 24 seasonal division points. The time will be each December 22 or 23 according to the Gregorian calendar.

The Northern hemisphere on this day experiences the shortest daytime and longest nighttime. After the Winter Solstice, days will become longer and longer. As ancient Chinese thought, the yang, or muscular, positive things will become stronger and stronger after this day, so it should be celebrated.

The Winter Solstice became a festival during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) and thrived in the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). The Han people regarded Winter Solstice as a “Winter Festival”, so officials would organize celebrating activities. On this day, both officials and common people would have a rest. The army was stationed in, frontier fortresses closed and business and traveling stopped. Relatives and friends presented to each other delicious food. In the Tang and Song dynasties, the Winter Solstice was a day to offer scarifies to Heaven and ancestors. Emperors would go to suburbs to worship the Heaven; while common people offered sacrifices to their deceased parents or other relatives. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) even had the record that “Winter Solstice is as formal as the Spring Festival,” showing the great importance attached to this day.

In some parts of Northern China, people eat dumpling soup on this day; while residents of some other places eat dumplings, saying doing so will keep them from frost in the upcoming winter. But in parts of South China, the whole family will get together to have a meal made of red-bean and glutinous rice to drive away ghosts and other evil things. In other places, people also eat tangyuan, a kind of stuffed small dumpling ball made of glutinous rice flour. The Winter Solstice rice dumplings could be used as sacrifices to ancestors, or gifts for friends and relatives. The Taiwan people even keep the custom of offering nine-layer cakes to their ancestors. They make cakes in the shape of chicken, duck, tortoise, pig, cow or sheep with glutinous rice flour and steam them on different layers of a pot. These animals all signify auspiciousness in Chinese tradition. People of the same surname or family clan gather at their ancestral temples to worship their ancestors in age order. After the sacrificial ceremony, there is always a grand banquet.

冬至,是我國農曆中一個非常重要的節氣,也是一個傳統節日,至今仍有不少地方有過冬至節的習俗。冬至俗稱“冬節”、“長至節”、“亞歲”等。早在二千五百多年前的春秋時代,我國已經用土圭觀測太陽測定出冬至來了,它是二十四節氣中最早制訂出的一個。時間在每年的陽曆12月22日或者23日之間。

冬至是北半球全年中白天最短、黑夜最長的一天,過了冬至,白天就會一天天變長。古人對冬至的說法是:陰極之至,陽氣始生,日南至,日短之至,日影長之至,故曰“冬至”。冬至過後,各地氣候都進入一個最寒冷的階段,也就是人們常說的“進九”,我國民間有“冷在三九,熱在三伏”的說法。現代天文科學測定,冬至日太陽直射南迴歸線,陽光對北半球最傾斜,北半球白天最短,黑夜最長,這天之後,太陽又逐漸北移。

在我國古代對冬至很重視,冬至被當作一個較大節日,曾有“冬至大如年”的說法,而且有慶賀冬至的習俗。 《漢書》中說:“冬至陽氣起,君道長,故賀。”人們認為:過了冬至,白晝一天比一天長,陽氣回升,是一個節氣循環的開始,也是一個吉日,應該慶賀。 《晉書》上記載有“魏晉冬至日受萬國及百僚稱賀……其儀亞於正旦。”說明古代對冬至日的重視。

現在,一些地方還把冬至作為一個節日來過。北方地區有冬至宰羊,吃餃子、吃餛飩的習俗,南方地區在這一天則有吃冬至米糰、冬至長線面的習慣。各個地區在冬至這一天還有祭天祭祖的習俗。

普通話教育-詞的輕重格式

Mandarin Lesson

詞的輕重格式:

多音節此的幾個音節有約定俗成的輕重差別,著就是詞的輕重格式(除非有特別需要時,不能改變這種格式)介於中間的稱為中,短而高音為輕,長而強稱為重。詞的輕重格式是漢語音樂性的一種表現,不僅有區別詞義詞性的作用,還有準確表達感情和語句目的的作用

(一) 雙音節詞輕重格式:

1.中重格式:第二個音節比第一個音節要長一些、重一些,如,兩個字的人名、地名

2.重中格式:第一個音節比第二個長一些、重一些,如,’愛好”藥品’

3.重輕格式:如,媽媽、鏡子

(二) 三字詞輕重格式:

1.中中重格式:較多,第二個略輕些,如,三字人名

2.中重輕格式:

3.重中中格式:如,提起來

(三) 四字詞輕重格式:

1.中重中重

2.重中中重:如,慘不忍睹

格式在播音中註意事宜:

1.重中輕是表現在音長和音強的變化上,音節結構不允許變化,聲調調值有些變化,在播音時,重音音節調值明顯,重音音節不明顯,但是能分清詞類,輕音音節聽得不清楚

2.輕與重是相對而言的,播音當中要自然過度,不可為了追求輕重而去虛張聲勢

3.細的輕重格式多數是固定的,但也有不固定的,’大會’(一般為中重,但為區別’小會’有時應為重中)

learn mandarin hong kong -Double Ninth Festival

Mandarin Lesson

The 9th day of the 9th lunar month is the traditional Chongyang Festival, or Double Ninth Festival. It usually falls in October in the Gregorian calendar. In an ancient and mysterious book Yi Jing, or The Book of Changes, number “6” was thought to be of Yin character, meaning feminine or negative, while number “9” was thought to be Yang, meaning masculine or positive. So the number nine in both month and day create the Double Ninth Festival, or Chongyang Festival. Chong in Chinese means “double.” Also, as double ninth was pronounced the same as the word to signify “forever”, both are “Jiu Jiu,” the Chinese ancestors considered it an auspicious day worth celebration. That’s why ancient Chinese began to celebrate this festival long time ago.

The custom of ascending a height to avoid epidemics was passed down from long time ago. Therefore, the Double Ninth Festival is also called “Height Ascending Festival”. The height people will reach is usually a mountain or a tower. Ancient literary figures have left many poems depicting the activity. Even today, people still swarm to famous or little known mountains on this day.

On this day, people will eat Double Ninth Gao (or Cake). In Chinese, gao (cake) has the same pronunciation with gao (height). People do so just to hope progress in everything they are engaged in. There is no fixed ways for the Double Ninth Cake, but super cakes will have as many as nine layers, looking like a tower.

The Double Ninth Festival is also a time when chrysanthemum blooms. China boasts diversified species of chrysanthemum and people have loved them since ancient times. So enjoying the flourishing chrysanthemum also becomes a key activity on this festival. Also, people will drink chrysanthemum wine. Women used to stick such a flower into their hair or hang its branches on windows or doors to avoid evilness.

In 1989, the Chinese government decided the Double Ninth Festival as Seniors’ Day. Since then, all government units, organizations and streets communities will organize an autumn trip each year for those who have retired from their posts. At the waterside or on the mountains, the seniors will find themselves merged into nature. Younger generations will bring elder ones to suburban areas or send gifts to them on this day.

農曆九月九日,為傳統的重陽節。因為古老的《易經》中把“六”定為陰數,把“九”定為陽數,九月九日,日月並陽,兩九相重,故而叫重陽,也叫重九,古人認為是個值得慶賀的吉利日子,並且從很早就開始過此節日。

在古代,民間在重陽有登高的風俗,故重陽節又叫“登高節”。相傳此風俗始於東漢。唐代文人所寫的登高詩很多,大多是寫重陽節的習俗;杜甫的七律《登高》,就是寫重陽登高的名篇。登高所到之處,沒有劃一的規定,一般是登高山、登高塔。

在這一天,人們還有吃“重陽糕”的習俗。在漢語裡,“糕”與“高”同音,”,人們會用“吃糕”代替“登高”,祝愿百事俱高。重陽糕又稱花糕、菊糕、五色糕,制無定法,較為隨意。最高的有九層,像一個塔。

重陽節正是一年的金秋時節,菊花盛開,民間還把農曆九月稱為“菊月”,在菊花傲霜怒放的重陽節裡,觀賞菊花成了節日的一項重要內容,當然,人們也會喝一些菊花酒。女人會把茱萸插在頭上或掛在門口,可以避難消災。

今天的重陽節,被賦予了新的含義,在1989年,我國把每年的九月九日定為老人節,傳統與現代巧妙地結合,成為尊老、敬老、愛老、助老的老年人的節日。全國各機關、團體、街道,往往都在此時組織從工作崗位上退下來的老人們秋遊賞景,或臨水玩樂,或登山健體,讓身心都沐浴在大自然的懷抱裡;不少家庭的晚輩也會攙扶著年老的長輩到郊外活動或為老人準備一些可口的飲食。

語言中心-學習普通話-語流音變

Mandarin Lesson

語流音變:在語流中因素或音節間相互影響產生語流變化

表現在:輕聲、兒化、變調、語氣詞同’啊’的變化上

(一) 輕聲:在現代漢語中有些詞的音節或句子裡的詞失去所有的聲調,把它念成又輕又短的調子

輕生的注意事項:(實際運用)

1.普通話中哪一個聲凋的音節都可能被輕化

2.在廣播語言當中能不輕化則不輕化,不可太隨意,尤其在政治性節目中更加應注意語言的規整、嚴肅

3.以輕化表示詞義和詞性的意義時必須輕化

4.輕聲音節在播音中讀得不能含混不清,讀輕音字時氣息仍在控制氛圍內,必須盡量保持遠韻母中的因色不拖長、不吃字

(二) 兒化:

主要有:

1.獨立表示一個單個的字音

2.附著在其它韻母后形成兒化韻

作用:

1.能區別詞義、確定詞性

2.是語言帶有小、少、喜愛或蔑視的感情色彩

3.在播音當中的別是撥嚴肅性稿件時盡量少用兒化音,必要用的時候,兒化程度不一過強

(三) 變調:再連續讀音中,聲凋發生的變化

上聲變調:

1.上聲字在單發或用在句尾時不變

2.非上升字前變半上(214-24)

3.上昇在全變為近似陽平字(214-24)

‘一、七、八、不’變調問題:

廣播中’七、八’基本不變調,’一、不’在輕生或去聲變陽平非去聲前讀去聲字,三字中間變輕聲

重疊形容詞變調問題:在播嚴肅性稿件時一般不變化,口語稿件可按如下規律辦——單音重疊此詞變陽平(漫漫地)雙音節時,前邊字變輕讀,後邊變陰平(整整齊齊)

(四) 語氣詞’啊’的變化:一般失單度用或用在句尾,單獨用時無變化,用在句尾考慮前一個音節的收尾音素

1.前面音節守衛音素是aoe I v 時(不包括iao iou)一般發“呀”

2.前面是ao u 時一般發“哇”

3.前面是en時一般發“哪”

4.前面是eng時一般發“恩啊”

短期課程 -普通話的聲調

Mandarin Lesson

(一) 聲調及作用

1.聲調:主要指某些語言中每一個音節所固有的能區別意義的聲音的高低和升降,又叫字調

2.聲調的變化是語言富有音樂性,各種聲調的有規律的安排可以構成詩歌的節奏

3.聲調有區別詞義的作用

(二) 調值和調類

1.調值:聲調的實質,指聲音高低、升降、曲、直、長短的形式。普通話裡有高平調(55)、高開調(35)、降開調(214)、全降調(51)

2.調類:聲調的種類。普通話有四個調類:陰平、陽平、上升、去聲

(三) 聲調的標記法:五度標記法

四聲發音口訣

(四) 聲調練習

1.應該在氣息、聲調、功名有一定控制的情況下進行,若控制不好,容易在上升、去聲上出毛病

2.聲調是否追卻是語音是否表追的一個重要方面,因為聲調不准, 而感覺到口音不准的情況很多

3.練習時可採用單音節聯繫以及各種組合方式的多音節練習

(五) 聲調聯繫注意事項

1.陰平往往發的不夠高、易下滑,把55變成53

2.陰平為窄元音時發音容易擠

3.陽平發音容易拐彎,將35讀成335

4.上聲音下行下不去,上行發不到家

5.取勝字發音容易劈、破,尤其是去聲音節作重音時

6.發欺生不要擠,不用拙力,始終有氣息支撐的感覺

 

Chinese language study HK – Understand the traditional Chinese festivals-Mid-Autumn Festival

Mandarin Lesson

The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month, usually in October in Gregorian calendar.

The festival has a long history. In ancient China, emperors followed the rite of offering sacrifices to the sun in spring and to the moon in autumn. Historical books of the Zhou Dynasty had had the word “Mid-Autumn”. Later aristocrats and literary figures helped expand the ceremony to common people. They enjoyed the full, bright moon on that day, worshipped it and expressed their thoughts and feelings under it. By the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the Mid-Autumn Festival had been fixed, which became even grander in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). In the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, it grew to be a major festival of China.

Folklore about the origin of the festival go like this: In remote antiquity, there were ten suns rising in the sky, which scorched all crops and drove people into dire poverty. A hero named Hou Yi was much worried about this, he ascended to the top of the Kunlun Mountain and, directing his superhuman strength to full extent, drew his extraordinary bow and shot down the nine superfluous suns one after another. He also ordered the last sun to rise and set according to time. For this reason, he was respected and loved by the people and lots of people of ideals and integrity came to him to learn martial arts from him. A person named Peng Meng lurked in them.

Hou Yi had a beautiful and kindhearted wife named Chang E. One day on his way to the Kunlun Mountain to call on friends, he ran upon the Empress of Heaven Wangmu who was passing by. Empress Wangmu presented to him a parcel of elixir, by taking which, it was said, one would ascend immediately to heaven and become a celestial being. Hou Yi, however, hated to part with his wife. So he gave the elixir to Chang E to treasure for the time being. Chang E hid the parcel in a treasure box at her dressing table when, unexpectedly, it was seen by Peng Meng.

One day when Hou Yi led his disciples to go hunting, Peng Meng, sword in hand, rushed into the inner chamber and forced Chang E to hand over the elixir. Aware that she was unable to defeat Peng Meng, Chang E made a prompt decision at that critical moment. She turned round to open her treasure box, took up the elixir and swallowed it in one gulp. As soon as she swallowed the elixir her body floated off the ground, dashed out of the window and flew towards heaven. Peng Meng escaped.

When Hou Yi returned home at dark, he knew from the maidservants what had happened. Overcome with grief, Hou Yi looked up into the night sky and called out the name of his beloved wife when, to his surprise, he found that the moon was especially clear and bight and on it there was a swaying shadow that was exactly like his wife. He tried his best to chase after the moon. But as he ran, the moon retreated; as he withdrew, the moon came back. He could not get to the moon at all.

Thinking of his wife day and night, Hou Yi then had an incense table arranged in the back garden that Chang E loved. Putting on the table sweetmeats and fresh fruits Chang E enjoyed most, Hou Yi held at a distance a memorial ceremony for Chang E who was sentimentally attached to him in the palace of the moon.

When people heard of the story that Chang E had turned into a celestial being, they arranged the incense table in the moonlight one after another and prayed kindhearted Chang E for good fortune and peace. From then on the custom of worshiping the moon spread among the people.

People in different places follow various customs, but all show their love and longing for a better life. Today people will enjoy the full moon and eat moon cakes on that day.

The moon looks extremely round, big and bright on the 15th day of each lunar month. People selected the August 15 to celebrate because it is a season when crops and fruits are all ripe and weather pleasant. On the Mid-Autumn Festival, all family members or friends meet outside, putting food on tables and looking up at the sky while talking about life. How splendid a moment it is!

每年農曆八月十五日,是傳統的中秋佳節。這時是一年秋季的中期,所以被稱為中秋。

中秋節有悠久的歷史,和其它傳統節日一樣,也是慢慢發展形成的,古代帝王有春天祭日,秋天祭月的禮制,早在《周禮》一書中,已有“中秋”一詞的記載。後來貴族和文人學士也仿效起來,在中秋時節,對著天上又亮又圓一輪皓月,觀賞祭拜,寄託情懷,這種習俗就這樣傳到民間,形成一個傳統的活動,一直到了唐代,這種祭月的風俗更為人們重視,中秋節才成為固定的節日,《唐書•太宗記》記載有“八月十五中秋節”,這個節日盛行於宋朝,至明清時,已與元旦齊名,成為我國的主要節日之一。

相傳,遠古時候天上有十日同時出現,曬得莊稼枯死,民不聊生,一個名叫后羿的英雄,力大無窮,他同情受苦的百姓,登上崑崙山頂,運足神力,拉開神弓,一氣射下九個多太陽,並嚴令最後一個太陽按時起落,為民造福。后羿因此受到百姓的尊敬和愛戴,不少志士慕名前來投師學藝,心術不正的蓬蒙也混了進來。

后羿有一個美麗的妻子叫“嫦娥”。一天,后羿到崑崙山訪友求道,巧遇由此經過的王母娘娘,便向王母求得一包不死藥。據說,服下此藥,能即刻升天成仙。然而,后羿捨不得撇下妻子,只好暫時把不死藥交給嫦娥珍藏。嫦娥將藥藏進梳妝台的百寶匣裡,不料被小人蓬蒙看見了。

一天,率眾徒外出狩獵,蓬蒙手持寶劍闖入內宅後院,威逼嫦娥交出不死藥。嫦娥知道自己不是蓬蒙的對手,危急之時她當機立斷,轉身打開百寶匣,拿出不死藥一口吞了下去。嫦娥吞下藥,身子立時飄離地面、衝出窗口,向天上飛去。蓬蒙便藉機逃走了。

傍晚,后羿回到家,侍女們哭訴了白天發生的事。后羿氣得搥胸頓足,悲痛欲絕,仰望著夜空呼喚愛妻的名字,這時他驚奇地發現,今天的月亮格外皎潔明亮,而且有個晃動的身影酷似嫦娥。他拼命朝月亮追去,可是他追三步,月亮退三步,他退三步,月亮進三步,無論怎樣也追不到跟前。

后羿無可奈何,又思念妻子,只好派人到嫦娥喜愛的後花園裡,擺上香案,放上她平時最愛吃的蜜食鮮果,遙祭在月宮裡眷戀著自己的嫦娥。百姓們聞知嫦娥奔月成仙的消息後,紛紛在月下擺設香案,向善良的嫦娥祈求吉祥平安。

中秋節的習俗很多,形式也各不相同,但都寄託著人們對生活無限的熱愛和對美好生活的嚮往。

在今天,中秋節的時候,人們都會吃月餅。月下游玩的習俗,已遠沒有舊時盛行。但設宴賞月仍很盛行,人們把酒問月,慶賀美好的生活,或祝遠方的親人健康快樂,和家人“千里共嬋娟”。

 

語文能力-熟讀中國古詩-五言律詩

Mandarin Lesson

李白

送友人

青山橫北郭, 白水繞東城。

此地一為別, 孤蓬萬里徵。

浮雲遊子意, 落日故人情。

揮手自茲去, 蕭蕭班馬鳴。

Wǔ yán lǜshī

 Libái

Sòng yǒurén

Qīngshān héng běi guō, báishuǐ rào dōngchéng.

Cǐdì yī wéi bié, gū péng wànlǐ zhēng.

Fúyún yóuzǐ yì, luòrì gùrén qíng.

Huīshǒu zì zī qù, xiāoxiāo bān mǎ míng.

作品譯文

青山橫亙在城郭的北側,明淨的河水環繞在城郭的東方。

我們即將在這裡離別,你就要像孤飛的蓬草一樣踏上萬里征程。

空中的白雲飄浮不定,像你從此遊蕩各地,我無法與你重逢;即將落山的太陽不忍沉沒,亦似我對你的依戀之情。

我們揮手告別,從這裡各奔前程,友人騎的那匹載他遠離的馬,好像不忍離去,蕭蕭的嘶叫著,增加了我的離愁別緒。

Mandarin language learning HK -Double Seventh Festival

Mandarin Lesson

The Double Seventh Festival, on the 7th day of the 7th lunar month, is a traditional festival full of romance. It often goes into August in the Gregorian calendar.

This festival is in mid-summer when the weather is warm and the grass and trees reveal their luxurious greens. At night when the sky is dotted with stars, and people can see the Milky Way spanning from the north to the south. On each bank of it is a bright star, which see each other from afar. They are the Cowherd and Weaver Maid, and about them there is a beautiful love story passed down from generation to generation.

Long, long ago, there was an honest and kind-hearted fellow named Niu Lang (Cowhand). His parents died when he was a child. Later he was driven out of his home by his sister-in-law. So he lived by himself herding cattle and farming. One day, a fairy from heaven Zhi Nu (Weaver Maid) fell in love with him and came down secretly to earth and married him. The cowhand farmed in the field and the Weaver Maid wove at home. They lived a happy life and gave birth to a boy and a girl. Unfortunately, the God of Heaven soon found out the fact and ordered the Queen Mother of the Western Heavens to bring the Weaver Maid back.

With the help of celestial cattle, the Cowhand flew to heaven with his son and daughter. At the time when he was about to catch up with his wife, the Queen Mother took off one of her gold hairpins and made a stroke. One billowy river appeared in front of the Cowhand. The Cowhand and Weaver Maid were separated on the two banks forever and could only feel their tears. Their loyalty to love touched magpies, so tens of thousands of magpies came to build a bridge for the Cowhand and Weaver Maid to meet each other. The Queen Mother was eventually moved and allowed them to meet each year on the 7th of the 7th lunar month. Hence their meeting date has been called “Qi Xi” (Double Seventh).

Scholars have shown the Double Seventh Festival originated from the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD220). Historical documents from the Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD371-420) mention the festival, while records from the Tang Dynasty (618-907) depict the grand evening banquet of Emperor Taizong and his concubines. By the Song (960-1279) and Yuan (1279-1368) dynasties, special articles for the “Qi Xi” were seen being sold on markets in the capital. The bustling markets demonstrated the significance of the festival.

Today some traditional customs are still observed in rural areas of China, but have been weakened or diluted in urban cities. However, the legend of the Cowhand and Weaver Maid has taken root in the hearts of the people. In recent years, in particular, urban youths have celebrated it as Valentine’s Day in China. As a result, owners of flower shops, bars and stores are full of joy as they sell more commodities for love.

在我國,農曆七月初七的夜晚,天氣溫暖,草木飄香,這就是人們俗稱的七夕節,也有人稱之為“乞巧節”或“女兒節”,這是中國傳統節日中最具浪漫色彩的一個節日,也是過去姑娘們最為重視的日子。

在晴朗的夏秋之夜,天上繁星閃耀,一道白茫茫的銀河橫貫南北,爭河的東西兩岸,各有一顆閃亮的星星,隔河相望,遙遙相對,那就是牽牛星和織女星。

相傳在很早以前,南陽城西牛家莊里有個聰明.忠厚的小伙子,父母早亡,只好跟著哥哥嫂子度日,嫂子馬氏為人狠毒,經常虐待他,逼他幹很多的活,一天,天上的織女和諸仙女一起下凡遊戲,在河裡洗澡,牛郎在老牛的幫助下認識了織女,二人互生情意,後來織女便偷偷下凡,來到人間,做了牛郎的妻子。男耕女織,情深意重,他們生了一男一女兩個孩子,一家人生活得很幸福。但是好景不長,這事很快便讓天帝知道,王母娘娘親自下凡來,強行把織女帶回天上,恩愛夫妻被拆散。

牛郎上天無路,還是老牛告訴牛郎,在它死後,可以用它的皮做成鞋,穿著就可以上天。牛郎按照老牛的話做了,穿上牛皮做的鞋,拉著自己的兒女,一起騰雲駕霧上天去追織女,眼見就要追到了,豈知王母娘娘拔下頭上的金簪一揮,一道波濤洶湧的天河就出現了,牛郎和織女被隔在兩岸,只能相對哭泣流淚。他們的忠貞愛情感動了喜鵲,千萬隻喜鵲飛來,搭成鵲橋,讓牛郎織女走上鵲橋相會,王母娘娘對此也無奈,只好允許兩人在每年七月七日於鵲橋相會。

七夕乞巧,這個節日起源於漢代,東晉葛洪的《西京雜記》有“漢彩女常以七月七日穿七孔針於開襟樓,人俱習之”的記載,這便是我們於古代文獻中所見到的最早的關於乞巧的記載。後來的唐宋詩詞中,婦女乞巧也被屢屢提及,唐朝王建有詩說“闌珊星斗綴珠光,七夕宮娥乞巧忙”。據《開元天寶遺事》載:唐太宗與妃子每逢七夕在清宮夜宴,宮女們各自乞巧,這一習俗在民間也經久不衰,代代延續。

直到今日,七夕仍是一個富有浪漫色彩傳統節日。但不少習俗活動已弱化或消失,惟有像徵忠貞愛情的牛郎織女的傳說,一直流傳民間。

Mandarin lesson in hong kong – Traditional Chinese festivals -Qingming Festival

Mandarin Lesson

The Qingming (Pure Brightness) Festival is one of the 24 seasonal division points in China, falling on April 4-6 each year. After the festival, the temperature will rise up and rainfall increases. It is the high time for spring plowing and sowing. But the Qingming Festival is not only a seasonal point to guide farm work, it is more a festival of commemoration.

The Qingming Festival sees a combination of sadness and happiness.

This is the most important day of sacrifice. Both the Han and minority ethnic groups at this time offer sacrifices to their ancestors and sweep the tombs of the diseased. Also, they will not cook on this day and only cold food is served.

The Hanshi (Cold Food) Festival was usually one day before the Qingming Festival. As our ancestors often extended the day to the Qingming, they were later combined.

On each Qingming Festival, all cemeteries are crowded with people who came to sweep tombs and offer sacrifices. Traffic on the way to the cemeteries becomes extremely jammed. The customs have been greatly simplified today. After slightly sweeping the tombs, people offer food, flowers and favorites of the dead, then burn incense and paper money and bow before the memorial tablet.

In contrast to the sadness of the tomb sweepers, people also enjoy hope of Spring on this day. The Qingming Festival is a time when the sun shines brightly, the trees and grass become green and nature is again lively. Since ancient times, people have followed the custom of Spring outings. At this time tourists are everywhere.

People love to fly kites during the Qingming Festival. Kite flying is actually not limited to the Qingming Festival. Its uniqueness lies in that people fly kites not during the day, but also at night. A string of little lanterns tied onto the kite or the thread look like shining stars, and therefore, are called “god’s lanterns.”

The Qingming Festival is also a time to plant trees, for the survival rate of saplings is high and trees grow fast later. In the past, the Qingming Festival was called “Arbor Day”. But since 1979, “Arbor Day” was settled as March 12 according to the Gregorian calendar.

清明是我國的二十四節氣之一。由於二十四節氣比較客觀地反映了一年四季氣溫、降雨、物候等方面的變化,所以古代勞動人民用它安排農事活動。但是,清明作為節日,與純粹的節氣又有所不同。節氣是我國物候變化、時令順序的標誌,而節日則包含著一定的風俗活動和某種紀念意義。因此,這個節日中既有祭掃新墳生別死離的悲酸淚,又有踏青遊玩的歡笑聲,是一個富有特色的節日。

清明節是我國傳統節日,也是最重要的祭祀節日,是祭祖和掃墓的日子。掃墓俗稱上墳,祭祀死者的一種活動。漢族和一些少數民族大多都是在清明節掃墓。由於清明與寒食的日子接近,而寒食是民間禁火掃墓的日子,漸漸的,寒食與清明就合二為一了,而寒食既成為清明的別稱,也變成為清明時節的一個習俗,清明之日不動煙火,只吃涼的食品。

按照舊的習俗,掃墓時,人們要攜帶酒食果品、紙錢等物品到墓地,將食物供祭在親人墓前,再將紙錢焚化,為墳墓培上新土,折幾枝嫩綠的新枝插在墳上,然後叩頭行禮祭拜,最後吃掉酒食回家。

與清明節掃墓的悲哀相反,人們在這個春光明媚的日子裡,也一樣是可以享受生活的。

放風箏也是清明時節人們所喜愛的活動。每逢清明時節,人們不僅白天放,夜間也放。夜裡在風箏下或風穩拉線上掛上一串串彩色的小燈籠,象閃爍的明星,被稱為“神燈”。

清明前後,春陽照臨,春陽照臨,春雨飛灑,種植樹苗成活率高,成長快。因此,自古以來,我國就有清明植樹的習慣。有人還把清明節叫作“植樹節”。植樹風俗一直流傳至今。 1979年,人大常委會規定,每年三月十二日為我國植樹節。這對動員全國各族人民積極開展綠化祖國活動,有著十分重要的意義。

普通話教育-普通話的複韻母

Mandarin Lesson

普通話的複韻母,口型和舌位不斷由一個元音的發音狀態過度到另一個元音的發音狀態,其中開口度最大、最響亮的元音叫韻腹,即主要元音,它前面的元音的叫韻頭,後面的部分叫韻尾

1.复韻母分兩大類:二合复韻母、三合复韻母

(1) 二合复韻母:二個單韻母拼合成一個複韻母ai,ei,ao,ou,ia,ie,ua,uo,ve(前響、後響)

(2) 三合复韻母:三個單韻母拼成一個複韻母iao,iou,uai,uei發音時口腔由小到大,中間響

2.注意事項

(1) 复韻母發音顯著特點是音色不斷變化,播音時要過度自然,發音動作不得分解,音也不能分解,且要發音準確

(2) 在發音準確的前提下,運動幅度不得過大,要盡量往一起歸

(3) 主要元音要放得開,次要元音(韻母)要收得住

(4) 響與不響是相對的,發音時不要片面追求響,要為內容思想服務